A STUDY ON FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO PAVEMENT DETERIORATION/FAILURES
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Universally, all built structures have a limited period of usefulness, meaning every infrastructure is functional only within a time frame after which it begins to collapse. Roads are important infrastructures which are critical to the socio-economic development of countries. Therefore, the road system demands constant maintenance through continuous assessment coupled with real-time repairs to keep them serviceable.
Pavement deterioration is very complex as it involves structural fatigue and functional distresses. The interactions among traffic, climate, material, time and the roadway geometric features account for this distressing phenomenon. It is widely known the huge effect extremely high traffic volumes have on the rapid deterioration of road pavements. In Ghana, huge investments are made in the construction and maintenance of road networks. In 2008 alone, the Government’s expenditure on major rehabilitation and construction was US$ 229 million while US$ 317 million was spent on road maintenance(MoT, 2009).It is therefore essential to develop measures to curtail the high cost of road pavement maintenance as it is the case in Ghana.
The Department of Urban Roads of Ghana has been collecting road inventory and condition survey data for its road development program in all Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) under its jurisdiction to improve the riding quality of the road network. This also aided the choice of intervention measures required and the maintenance needs of the road network.
The study attempts to investigate the causes of road surface distresses by considering traffic and other road related features in determining the effects of these parameters on road pavement deterioration. Findings will help the Road Authorities to detect the different type of distresses on road pavements earlier and to consequently determine the maintenance needs and activity requirements. This will likewise help the timing of repair or reconstruction, and evaluating the long term financing necessities needed to keep the road functional.