Water Treatment Analysis In Shambles

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CHAPTER ONE /INTRODUCTION

  Background to the study

Clean water is essential for humans and has a profound effect on health and has the capacity to reduce illness. Paradoxical, it is a medium that disease-causing-agents may be transported through and transmitted into humans. Water impacts on human health through consumption of water consisting of pathogenic organisms or toxic chemicals. Water also impact on human health if not consumed in a required amount, leading to dehydration and/or other personal health issues (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012).
Global water problems are neither homogenous nor constant or consistent over time. There is a spatio-temporal variation within a particular country as well as from one region to another. Solutions to these problems depend not only on water availability, but also on many other factors such as competence and capacities of institutions that manage them, availability of funds, climatic, social and environmental conditions of the countries concerned. They also depend on the levels and availability of technology, modes of governance and quality of academic research (Biswas, 2008).
Today, the perception about water goes to the very height of the increasing worldwide concern about human health, the environment, and the path towards sustainable development. Of all the
natural resources needed for economic development, water is one of the most essential, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. At the dawn of the 21st century, human kind is faced with multiple challenges of rapid population growth which increases the demand for the quantity of water to satisfy people’s needs both in agriculture and in expanding urban centers. Similarly, the failing water quality due to increasing pollution, groundwater depletion and attendant environmental impacts and health risks also pose other major challenges (Duda et al., 2000).
The impending water crises need both national and international attention. An estimated 1.4 billion people are presently living without access to safe drinking water, about 2.3 billion lack basic sanitation, 7 million die every year from water-borne diseases, and half of the world’s rivers and lakes are seriously polluted (Serageldin, 1999). Recent assessment conducted for the UN (World Meteorological Organization, 1998) and for the World Commission on Water (Seckler et al., 1999; Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, 1999) added a sense of urgency to these figures. Currently, almost half a billion people face shortages of water in 29 countries. By 2050, almost two-thirds of the people on our planet are forecast to experience some types of water stress, and for over a billion of them, the shortage will be severe and socially disruptive (Duda et al., 2000).
Research on water quality and pollution is very paramount, particularly in the developing countries like Nigeria where water availability to serve both domestic and industrial demands continues to be a problem of great concern. Water quality control and watershed management would only be possible with adequate information on the water bodies within a given locality, region or a country.
 
Therefore, continuous assessment of the quality of water supplied to the public is very important and necessary, in order to meet the United Nations’ campaign for providing good quality drinking water for all by the twenty first century (Knapp, 1989). The quality of water plays an important role because its mere availability does not qualify it for use, Biswas, (1998) reported that the qualities of water defines the extent of the uses it could be put. The better the quality of water the wider the range of uses it could be put. Thus, the need to properly assess the quality of water before and after treatment is of paramount importance. Different researches have been carried out by scholars (Iguisi et al 1999, Dim et al,2000, Butu 2002), on quality of groundwater, surface water, and pipe borne water, which some pollutants were found to be above the international permissible limit for water meant for domestic and agricultural uses.

Statement of the Research Problem

Since 1990, 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources and 1.8 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation. However, worldwide, 780 million people still do not have access to improved water sources and an estimated 2.5 billion people — half of the developing world — lack access to adequate sanitation WHO (2012) . Approximately 88% of deaths due to diarrheal illness worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene  five  Johnson  et al (2010).. Diarrheal diseases (such as cholera) kill more children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined, making it the second leading cause of death among children under five  Johnson  et al (2010).
The pathogens that cause diarrhea are commonly spread by food or water that has been contaminated with human or animal feces. This contamination can occur in the environment as a result of inadequate sanitation and inadequate protection of drinking water sources and food products, or in the home through unsafe water storage and inadequate hygiene.

Aim and Objectives

 The aim of this study is on Water Treatment Analysis In Shambles . This will be achieved through the following objectives;

  1. To identify Water Treatment Analysis In Shambles
  2. To analyze the awareness on domestic wastewater management in Awka, Anambra state

Scope of the study

            The study focused on Water Treatment Analysis In Shambles. ten selected locations in Awka urban centre, namely: Agulu-Awka, Amaku, Amenyi, Amikwo, Ezioka, Ifite, Nkwelle-Awka, Temp site, Umudioka, and Umuokpu

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