Prevalence Of Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomoniasis And Vulvovaginal Candidiasis In Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic
Introduction: Vaginal infections are usually caused by Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and organisms responsible for bacterial vaginosis including Gardneralla vaginalis, Bacteriodes spp, and Mobilincus. These infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcome including preterm delivery, low birth weight, miscarriage.
Objectives: The study determined the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic
Methods: A prospective study of 589 consecutive vaginal swabs of pregnant women was taken after administration of a semi-structured questionnaire. The samples were analysed using wet mount, culture and Gram stain for vaginal infection. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate association of vaginal symptoms and risk factors to vaginal infections.
Results: The overall prevalence of vaginal infections was 56.4%. The individual prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis was 30.6%, 1.4% and 36.5% respectively. In multivariate analysis, vaginal symptom pruritus was significantly associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Considering number of pregnancies, less than three pregnancies was an independent risk factor for bacterial vaginosis. Being in the third trimester of pregnancy was however found to be protective to bacterial vaginosis.
Conclusion: The prevalence of vaginal infections was high among pregnant women. The data confirms pruritus as a key symptom of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Adequate investigations and early treatment of vaginal infections will reduce the disease burden and avoid complications associated with it.