Design and Implementation of Magnetic levitation Train System
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Overcoming the grip of the earth’s gravity has been a major challenge for years. However, the work of scientists and engineers who have found many ways to levitate a variety of objects is being applied in the field of transportation in several countries.
A long with the increase of population and expansion in living zones, automobiles and air services cannot afford mass transit anyone. Accordingly, demands for innovative means of public transportation have increased. In order to appropriately serve the public, such a new-generation transportation system must meet certain requirements.
Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) uses magnetic levitation to propel vehicles. With maglev, a vehicle is levitated a short distance away from a “guide way” using magnets to create both lift and thrust. High-speed maglev trains promise dramatic improvement for human travel.
The Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) train is one of the best candidates to satisfy: rapidity, reliability and safety. While conventional train drives forward by using friction between wheels and rails, the maglev train replaces wheels by electromagnets and levitates on the guide way, producing propulsion force electromechanically, without any contacts.
The Maglev train looks to be very promising solution for the near future, many researchers have developed technologies such as modeling and analysis of linear electric machinery superconductivity, permanent magnets.
The Wheel-on-rail systems suffers from numerous problems mostly is caused by the friction because of the weight that the train applies to the rail which cause loss in energy. The wheel-on-rail systems can’t reach high speeds. The wheel-on-rail systems are environmentally unfriendly; it can be represented as the conventional train.
Conventional train drives forward by using friction between wheels and rails. This friction causes many problems such as noise, vibration, reduces acceleration and needs periodical maintenance.
The maglev train replaces wheels by electromagnets and levitates on the guide way, producing propulsion force electromechanically without any contact.
The main objective of this study is to:
- Design a magnetic levitating system
- Build a maglev train model
- To study the mechanism of the magnetic fields and the relationship between the levitation/movement and the
- Build a levitating moving ‘maglev’ train model
- Designing and modeling a levitation system
The project consists of five chapters: Chapter One presents an introduction to the principles of the project, project motivation and objectives. Chapter Two consists of theoretical background of automatic control, magnetic levitation, magnetic levitation train, microcontroller system, PID controller, nonlinear systems, linearization of nonlinear systems, transistor and freewheeling diode. Chapter Three concerns with system description, system hardware and software and modeling. Chapter Four presents the simulation and result , the system fabrication , the system control circuit implementation, the prototype design and the testing. Finally, Chapter Five presents a conclusion and recommendations for future works.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|TABLE OF CONTENTS||vi|
|LIST OF FIGURES||Ix|
|LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS||xi|
|LIST OF SYMBOLS||xii|
|1.1 General concepts||1|
|1.2 Problem Statement||2|
|1.5 project layout||3|
|2.1 control system||4|
|2.2 Magnetic Levitation||10|
|2.3 Magnetic Levitation Train||11|
|2.7 Proportional Integral Derivative controller||18|
|2.8 Nonlinear System||19|
|2.9 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems||19|
|2.11 Freewheeling diode||20|
MODELING AND DESIGNING
|3.1 System Description||23|
|3.2 System Hardware||23|
|3.3 System Software||32|
SIMULATION AND RESULTS
|4.1 Simulation and result||37|
|4.2 Design of PD controller||38|
|4.3 System fabrication||40|
|4.4 Rail and trailer||40|
|4.5 Magnetic levitation||42|
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS