CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is commonly accepted that most effective way to increase student interest in economics is by applying economics analysis to issues that students find particularly relevant in life.
One needs only to observe the relative scarcity of literature pertaining to the interdisciplinary teaching of economics to conclude that such an approach is not common. However, there are several papers that illustrate innovational materials from other disciplines.
Watts (2002) and Smith (1989) explain how literature and drama can be utilized in the teaching of economic.
Adejumobi(2000), state that “without adequate method, a clear set of objects and carefully arranged content likely to fail to produce satisfactory result on the parts of the students. This tends to be so,since method are the means by which the learners are kept inspired in the teaching activities, which result in learning.
The level of use and effectiveness of some methods of teaching economic in secondary schools established the fact that, develop reasoning of collecting content with consideration of age of student, level and intellectual skill development of the learners, availability of resource materials that are suitable, relevant and appropriate for effective teaching and progressive adequate learning exercise.
Teaching method occupied a paramount position in the teaching/learning situation. It serves as a communication link between the teacher, the students and the subject matter (Obaje, 2008). The subject matter is most important and vital in any teaching subject, the following need to be considered;
A. Teacher method is integral part of the school curriculum; the teacher needs to know the effective method to communicate with the students in order to achieve the set objectives by the National Policy on Education.
B. The methodology of a teacher invariably determines the success or failure of the lesson.
Method are of different types depending on the topic the teacher want to teach in order to aid effective teaching learning process and to achieve the objective of teaching.
In other word, For the purpose of this research work the following methods will be considered:
1. Problem solving method
2. Discussion method
3. Demonstration method
4. Role playing method
5. Oral exposition/lecture method
6. Discovery method
7. Case study method
In planning for an effective lesson with the aim of using an effective method or technique, the teacher should understand the basic fact that most suitable technique must be adopted alongside with the method of teaching in order to boost the effectiveness of the real method applied from the commencement of the lesson. The teacher should acknowledge the fact that there are some dimensions that tend to make a particular method effective thus:
i. One – Dimension of teaching
ii. Two – Dimension of teaching
iii. Three – Dimension or Multi – Dimension of teaching
One Dimension of teaching emphasizes the use of on particular method in teaching economics.
These methods depend solely on the topic at hand but, not always suitable to all aspects of topic in economics. Hence, the nature of topic is what prompts the use of the dimension.
Two Dimension of teaching emphasizes the fact that another method will be adopted in correlation to the teaching method in order to raise the effectiveness of the real method applied from the commencement of the lesson.
Three Dimension or Multi-Dimension of teaching tends to neglect the fact that a particular lesson will be tough effectively more than one or two method of teaching in used. This particular dimension is the appropriate to enable the effectiveness of the teaching learning process in economics.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
According to Kidzu Thomas Oweh, teacher has the greatest potential to influence the student’s education, while a student achievement is related to teacher’s competence in using different methods of teaching. Thus, students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching procedures that make teaching and learning processes easier. In other words, excellent academic performance by students is not only attainable but could also be sustained through teacher method of teaching.
These study therefore, examine the level of use and effectiveness of some selected methods of teaching economics in Lagos state secondary schools, specifically how teacher’s effectiveness would bring about excellent academic performance through appropriate use of method of teaching.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of these research works are stated below:
i. To ascertain how learner attitude affect the method of teaching the students.
ii. To identify the teaching methods, their academic performance and the factors affecting the students.
iii. To evaluate the effects of method of teaching economics on the performance of students.
iv. To examine the teacher methods of teaching and their qualification.
v. To know the relationship between teacher methods and learning experience.
vi. To establish relationship between teacher’s methods of teaching economics and learner academics achievement.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following are the research questions develop to examine the level of use and effectiveness of some selected methods of teaching economics in senior secondary schools;
i. Do teachers have knowledge of basic principles of using methods of teaching economics?
ii. Do student have negative or positive attitude towards the method of teaching adopted by their teachers?
iii. Is there any significant different between methods of teaching and teacher qualification?
iv. Is there any significant different between learning economics and teachers experience?
v. What is the relationship between teacher’s methods of teaching economics and learner academic achievement?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In order to verify and make valid conclusion base on the empirical investigation, the following hypothesis has been were tested:
1. There is no significance difference between methods of teaching economics and learners’ knowledge neglect.
2. There is no significance difference between attitudinal development of learner and the method of teaching economics.
3. There is no significance difference between the evaluation of learners’ attitude of learning and their academic performance.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study will be limited to Surulere Local Government of Lagos state in some selected schools.
This is due to difficulty encountered in the process of covering the whole Lagos as such as time, financial and other factors beyond the control of the researcher.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ECONOMICS: According to Pigondefine economics in terms of welfare thereby stressing the human as well as the material aspect of the subject, regarding it as; A means of studying how total production could be increased so that the standard of living of people might be improved.
Adam Smith, who is being referred to as the father of economics considered economics as, an inquiry into nature and causes of the wealth of Nations.
METHODS: Refer to a way of doing things or an approach adopted or a position adopted to explain a subject – matter to a group of learners.
SELECT: According to Oxford Advanced Dictionary defined select: as choose thing carefully or especial as being the best or most suitable.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter focuses on the viewpoints, opinions and recommendation expressed by some educationist, curriculum planners, education administrators, professional economists and authors. It focuses on the review of the relevant literature of the topic at hand and to make research on the areas which one understand the selected method of teaching in relation to the academic performance in economics.
– Teaching methods
– Types of methods teaching
– Factors to consider when selecting method teaching
– Factors to consider by economic teacher
– Relationship between economics another social sciences
– How to organize an economic subject
– Concept and classroom teaching of economics
– Stages of teaching
– Factors affecting attitude
– Nature of economics as it affect the attitudinal development of learners
– Availability of relevant materials
– Attitude in relation to academic performance
2.2 TEACHING METHOD
A method refers to a way of doing things or an approach adopted or a position adopted to explain a subject – matter to a group of learners.
A method of teaching is the plan or mean employed by the teacher to effectively impart or explain the subjects – matter to his pupils/students.
The variety of teaching methods is almost limitless; it may be help to think in terms of categories of method. For example:
A. Teaching – centered approach to teaching: Within this category such methods as lecture, storytelling, and demonstration would be included.
This approach lends themselves to large groups, coverage of much content, and groups of learners who have minimal preparation for the class time. It is easier to use, teachers with less training and experience tend towards this category.
B. Student–centered approach: This is a two-way-communication approach between teacher and student in the mutual quest for truth. The question and answer and discussion methods are typical examples of this approach.
Successful two-way teaching is dependent upon effective preparation by both teacher and student.
C. Group activities represent yet a different kind of teaching method which involved; debates, group discussion and all forms of drama could be included here.
D. Instructive play as a method category. They include various kinds of games and toys, use of a sand table, puppet, puzzles and contests, action songs and simple role-playing.
E. Final category consists of such method as field trips, guided research, and various kinds of projects.
The teacher who wishes to be really effective will be sure that his teaching is characterized by variety. The teacher must try and familiar with these variety which implies that the use of lesson plans and keep records that enable him to compare various teaching strategies.
The method described in this section are not new, they are presented here so that teachers can recognize the strengths and limitations of each, and some principles for their affective use.
2.3 TYPES OF METHODS OF TEACHING
a. Problem solving or inquiry method
b. Discussion method
c. Demonstration method
d. Role playing method
e. Oral exposition lecture method
f. Discovery method
g. Case study method
2.3.1 PROBLEM SOLVING/INQUIRY METHOD
This method encourages pupils or students to probe into a problem in order to find out why such problems exist and the solution to such problem. Problem solving method also called inquiry methods, inquiry method of teaching economies provides an opportunity for the students to identify and clarify a purpose for inquiry.
In teaching economics, problem solving method is used to involve students in activities of investigation, collection and the understanding of information or data.
In problem-solving approach, the students is not primarily asked to write a discursive essay or recall definitions but to resolve problem that will yield an answer only if concepts particular to economics are carefully use.
A. STEPS INVOLVED IN INQUIRY METHOD
According to Dubey and Barth (2002), there are six steps involved in inquiry, there are:
2. State of uncertainty and doubt
3. Framing of the problem
4. Formulating hypothesis
5. Exploration and evidencing
MERITS OF INQUIRY METHOD
1. It increases intellectual ability of the pupils.
2. It motivates pupils/students to learn.
3. It helps to develop confidence in students and teachers.
4. It teaches skills, values, appreciation, attitude and knowledge that will make students more thoughtful about their environment.
DEMERITS OF INQUIRY METHOD
1. It is time consuming.
2. It requires the guidance of a well-trained teacher.
3. It is limited to the activities, which students have skill and ability to investigate due to their ages and experiences.
4. It requires funds and materials.
2.3.2 DISCUSSION METHOD
Discussion methods are effective in getting the learners to think constructively while interacting with the rest of the group. Conduct discussions with large or small groups of students, however, small groups are more desirable to control and direct than larger group. If a group is extremely large, break it into smaller groups or teams with a discussion leader for each team.
The use of the terms class discussion and directed discussion in the text refer to a method in which you direct and control the verbal exchange of the class.
Basic to a good discussion is a problem which is clearly defined. The problem must be limited in scope so that it can be understood by members of the group and satisfactorily dealt with in the allotted time.
The teacher go extra miles to prepare for discussion class, although the learners supply the ideas meanwhile, the teacher must have a thorough knowledge of the subject matter to be able to sift out pertinent ideas. Teacher must beware of ideas that may lead the learners off on a tangent.
Teacher and student are engaged in a cooperative effort to seek information or solution to a problem in the classroom.
Values of the Discussion Method
i. Teaching by discussion utilizes one of the best principles of the learning process. A good discussion will help students express themselves verbally, crystallize their thinking in conjunction with the thinking of their peers and develop a tolerance for those with whom they may disagree.
ii. People who tend to isolate themselves physically or mentally will become set in their way and resist innovation in their lives or thought patterns.
iii. Teaching by discussion is a motivational technique which encourages a student to think through concepts which have been hazy. Wrong conclusion may be corrected through the influence of the group rather than the unilateral actions of the teacher.
iv. A discussion setting also provides an atmosphere which can enhance group rapport and camaraderie in the class.
Whole Group Discussion as a Teaching Method
Whole Group Discussion is a modified from of classroom lecture where the focus is shared between the teacher and the students for information transfer. Typically, a teacher will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn but the students will also participate by answering questions and providing example.
Advantages of Whole Group Discussion as a Teaching Method
i. Whole group discussions provide for greater interaction between teacher and students.
ii. Teachers maintain a greater control over what is being taught because they are able to steer the discussion.
iii. Auditory learners find them appealing to their learning style
iv. Students have a tendency to stay focused on the lesson because they might be called on to answer question
Disadvantages of Whole Group Discussion as a Teaching Method
i. Whole group discussions require setting up and enforcing ground rules for students.
ii. Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from group discussion.
iii. It required much amount of time to cover any given amount of materials.
iv. Some teachers feel safer with the lecture method
SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION
To keep discussion focused, you might initially pose several key questions. If the group is large, some participants will likely dominate while others remain silent. To ensure that everyone has the opportunity to speak, you may want to divide participants into smaller units. When any discussion concludes, summarize the main points orally and in writing.
i. Small Groups: Size will depend on time and the sensitivity or complexity of the subject. In most cases each group selects a reporter to summarize its discussion.
ii. Buzz Groups: Participants discuss in pars for a limited period. This method is especially effective for articulating idea in preparation for a general discussion or to give expression to personal response to a film, presentation, or experience, after talking in pars, pairs might be asked to combine in groups of four and compare their opinions
iii. Opens Questioning: Facilitators need to develop the skills of keeping the goal of discussion clearly, in mind and of asking questions that encourage participation and analysis.
2.3.3 DEMONSTRATION METHOD
This method is one of the best ways of introducing various skills to learners in class. Sometime there are limitations to what oral explanation or reading up volumes or lecture can achieve.
Demonstration method involved their skill to explained are performed. Demonstrate stop-by-step the procedures in a job task using exact physical procedure if possible.
To be effective, plan the demonstration method in advance so that you will be sure to show the steps in the proper sequence and to include all steps.
There is need to used enlarge devices or training aids when using large group or class in demonstration method when practical, allow learners to repeat the procedure in a ‘hands’ practice session to reinforce the learning process.
This method is used in some skill oriented subjects such as Home Economics, fine and Applied Arts, Technical Education, Typing.
TECHNIQUES USED IN THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD
i. The basic method of instruction for teaching skill-type subject matter is the demonstration – performance method of instruction. This method is recommended for teaching a skill because it covers all the necessary steps in an effective learning order.
ii. The demonstration step gives learners the opportunity to see and hear the details include the necessary background knowledge, the steps or procedure, the nomenclature
iii. The repetition step helps the average and slow learners and gives the learners an additional opportunity to see and hear the skill being taught.
As a general rule, the more complex the skill, the greater the need for repetition steps. Another element you must consider is the nature of the skill. In some skills, speed is an essential element. In other skills, ease of manipulation, conservation of materials, or safety is the essential element.
Consider the ability of the learners to acquire the skill and the amount of time available for training.
Using the following repetition steps:
(a) Teacher Repetition: Repeat the job without noticeable interruptions, restating the procedures and the important safety factors while performing the steps.
(b) Learner Repetition: Ask a learner to act as an assistant teacher by repeating the job and restating the procedure and the important safety factors while performing each step.
(c) Group Performance Repetition: Repeat the job slowly, one step at a time, while the learners watch and imitate your actions, one step at a time.
(d) Coach-and-Pupil Repetition: Divide learners into small groups. If a group consists of two learners, one (as a pupils) performs the job while the other as the coach)
(e) Performance Step: Acquaint the learners with the activity will complete when using a skill. Then organize the learners into working groups, supervise their practice of their practice of the skills involved, re-teach the skills, and evaluate and record the results.
Advantages of Performance Step
i. Mastery of skills is ensuring because learners practice regularly.
ii. It enable the teacher to have immediate feedback with which she/he can diagnose the teaching learning situation
iii. It eradicates trial and errors, thereby reducing cost
Disadvantages of Performance Step
It requires a lot of preparation on the part of the teacher.
Some skills require perfection especially on the teacher, and failure to attain this perfection may result in detraction.
It is limited by the learner’s capacity and capabilities; in terms of readiness, intelligence and motivation
2.3.4 ROLE PLAY METHOD
This is the method which involves playing the role of a reality. It is one of the methods mostly used in economics. This is otherwise called demonstrated method.
According to Oyekan(2005) demonstration is a way of clearly showing the basic processes as true of life without difficulty in front of the class. This could be done by the teacher or resource person to enable the student to see, acquire and practice the exhibited skills and habits.
When there is scarcity of funds to procure equipment and chemical, demonstration is more appropriate for the students to secure first hand experiences (Oyekan, 2005).
It is also possible to create a role play by providing data about economic conditions such as balance of payment, level of employment, Investment, Consumption. Students may be asked to put themselves in the position of a Minister of Economic Planning and faced with a particular decision.
MERITS OF ROLE-PLAYING METHOD
1. It saves cost and time.
2. It make even or situation real to life.
3. It ensures effective teaching-learning process
4. It fosters and promotes quick understanding of a concept situation
DEMERITS OF ROLE – PLAYING METHOD
1. It requires the guidance of the teacher for better understanding and appreciation
2. An exhibition of other behaviors in the real life situation different from what has been illustrated or demonstrated in the classroom.
2.3.5 ORAL EXPOSITION OR LECTURE METHOD
Oral Exposition is otherwise called lecture method. It is the method mostly adopted in the traditional period. In this type of teaching method dominate that of the learners in the classroom. Learner’s involvement and participation is not all that is very obvious in oral exposition instead, they are mostly passive and emphasis is, rather placed on teacher’s activities than the learner’s activities.
Oliver (2007) was quick to add that it is a well-known general principle that oral exposition is a poor method of communication in that the students plays a passive role. He emphasizes further that:
This gives rise to two separate problems in economic: first, the efficiency of alternative techniques is also severely circumscribed and second, there are special difficulties in teaching economics when oral methods are used.
These are some economics topics that require mostly the use of oral exposition or lecture method. Such topics include; economics growth and development, underdevelopment etc.
MERITS OF ORAL EXPOSITION/LECTURE METHOD
1. It saves time of teaching and notes preparation.
2. It is efficient and useful for teaching the class that is very large
3. It is useful where books are very scare or where students could not afford to buy books.
DEMERITS OR ORAL EXPOSITION/LECTURE METHOD
1. It is teacher- centered and not pupils – centered
2. It does not encourage class discussion or pupils involvement
3. It is most disadvantaged for student whose I.Q is below average – slow learners.
2.3.6 DISCOVERY METHOD
According to Ormrod, 2000 defined Discovery Teaching is “an approach to instruction through which students interact with their environment by explori0gn and manipulating objects.
Wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. The idea is that students are more likely to remember concepts they discover on their own.
Also, Discovery teaching has been described as process of allowing the student to take the leading role in his own learning experiences. The teacher becomes a facilitator and guide, making it possible for the learner to reach mutually-agreed upon goals. The teacher serves as a resource person to stimulate, motivate, clarify and explain.
Discovery teaching brings four basic components of the educational setting into interaction.
– The student
– The learner
– The environment and
– The content
The student is an active participant who solves problems which he understands through student the process of structuring his own learning experiences.The teacher plays the role of resource person, as described above the environment includes both freedom and structure with freedom having the upper hand. The content may very well be propositional truth in a general context, waiting in the proper place for the student to track it down, confront it, and capture it for his own.
2.3.7 CASE STUDY METHOD
This is a method that involves the use of actual (real) of closely stimulated economic events, situation, development or policy measures to assert facts. A case study in economics is the consideration of actual or closely stimulated economics events and situation.
Sandford and Bradbury (2008) in their view-points empathized that case studies “require the direct participation of the students, they are learning by doing, the case study method carries the danger that once ‘case’ may be regarded as typical and generalizations may be drawn based on a sample that is too small or too unrepresentative to warrant them.
The idea of case study was first used by Harvard School Business. Case studies have the following characteristics:-
Limited: In terms of the scope, it follows from the detail the limitation is essential for the purpose of making a point or clarification. Case study is usually limited or specific to place, event, time unit and phenomenon.
Unified: It is unified since it has clearly mark the beginning and end of an event, unit or phenomenon.
Detailed: The use of case studies is more detailed than the textbookanalysis or in the course of lecture.
For instance, in the textbook, the origin of bank generally will be reveal however, a case study of a bank will tell in more detail the origin of such bank.
TYPE OF CASE STUDY
There are two basic types of case study:
i. Case study that illustrates principles
ii. Case study that propounds principles
Case study that illustrates principles: This is the type employed by Adam Smith in his attempt to explain or illustrate the operation of the principle of Division of Labour. It is the famous case study of a pin-making industry. Adam Smith divided the states of production of pins with one person performing only a stage of the production process.
Case studies that propound principles: There are some case studies which help to propound some principles. In order to propound a theory, we need to study a real situation in the number of cases. The case-study in this category will enable the pupils to understand the fact of the case, the task of inducing principles from them.
Merits of case study method
i. It make point understandable and clearer
ii. It gives the reality of event
iii. It helps in teaching some topics such as division labour, production
iv. It can be used as substitute for verbal presentation
Demerits of case study method
i. It is time consuming
ii. It not appropriately use, it may confuse the students
iii. Its successful application depends on the teachers’ ability.
iv. It can only be used to supplement other method to make is successful.
v. It requires students’ reasonable level of maturity.
2.4 FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING METHOD OF TEACHING.
For successful and effective teaching, there are some vital thingsthat teacher need to know. This implies that, there are some vital principles that should be integrated in selecting a good method of teaching.
a. The purpose of any teaching method should be geared towards effective learning
b. All teaching methods are useful and effective if the teacher is a master of the subject matter thereby enhancing his effectiveness in the classroom.
c. All methods should encourage activities that demands effort from the students.
d. The method to be used must adapt to the age, experience and ability to the learners.
e. Good lesson notes are the foundation of good preparation
f. It should be able to make the students know the relevance of the subject matter of their life.
g. It must enhance the effective use of time at the teachers’ disposal.
h. The teacher must be able to cope with such method effectively, thereby achieving the purpose.
i. It should ensure the participation of the learners.
j. The resources at the disposal of a teacher equally dictate his choice of method.
A teacher’s preference for a particular method of teaching will, in most cases, influence his choice hence, teachers who have developed some great likening for a particular method often hold on fanatically to it.