Khutbah: An Islamic Perspective
1.0 Concept of Khutbah
Khutbah is derived from the Arabic word “Khataba” which is translated as preaching or sermon.
Khutbah is defined as sermon or talks on oral or religious issues usually given by an imam or leader during service.
And there is sermon delivered on Friday before Jumu’at prayer and there is Khutbah (Sermon) delivered at any Islamic gathering (including Khutbah on Eid-ul-Afitr and Eid-ul-Kabir Days).
According to Islamic teachings, Khutbah is an advice or admonishment that will lead to consciousness or fear of Allah, and will lead one to moral uprightness.
The Khutbah however, refers to Khutbah Al-Jumu’at, usually meaning the address delivered in the mosque at weekly (Noon) Friday prayer. The validity Khutbah (Sermon) is a condition for the validity of Jumu’at (Friday) prayer.
O you who believe (Muslim)! When the call Is proclaimed for the Salat (Prayer) on the Day of Friday (Jumu’ah Prayer), come to the Remembrance of Allah (Jumu’ah religious talk) Khutbah and leave off business that is better For you if you did but know. Q62:9
However, the Khutbah (Sermon) must contain items of preaching, guidance, and admonishing the congregation about religion implication and the does and done of Allah (S.W.T).
2.2 KHUTBAH DURING PROPHET
The prophet (S.A.W) first Khutbah in Madina addressed Muslims on the fear of Allah.
All praise is due to Allah. I thank him and seek his aid. I ask his forgiveness and seek his guidance. I believe in him and do not deny him. I am the enemy of those who reject belief in him I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship, other than Allah, him alone without partner, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger whom he sent with guidance, true religion, light and advice after a long gap of time when no messengers were sent, knowledge was little, people were misguided and time appeared to have stopped as the day of judgment approached.
Whoever obeys Allah and his messenger is wise and whoever disobeys them is astray, wasted and has lost his way far from the true path. I advise you to fear Allah and be conscious of him. Be conscious of what Allah warned you of himself. There is no better advice than that or a better reminder. It is a shield for those who follow this advise carefully and cautiously and it is and aid, and the truth that will get you what you aspire for on the Day of Judgment. Whoever establishes a good relationship between him and Allah, secretly and openly, only to seek the pleasure of Allah, will benefit in this life and be saved in the afterlife when he will be in dire need of the good deeds he earned before death. Man will then wish that there were a great distance between him and anything else other than taqwa.
Allah warns you about himself and he is kind to his servants. Allah, who has spoken the truth and fulfilled his promise, has said;
“I do not change my words and I do not oppress my servants” (Q50:29).
Fear Allah in your present and future affairs, in secret and in the open for (Allah has said:) “Whoever fears Allah, his sins will be forgiven and his reward will be many fold” (Q65:5) and “whoever fears Allah will achieve great success” having taqwa (fearful awareness of Allah) protect man from Allah’s anger protects him from his wrath. Taqwa illumines the face, pleases the lord and elevates the rank.
Take what is determined for you and do not neglect your relationship with Allah. He has taught you his book, laid down for you his path so that he know which of you are the lairs. Therefore, do good, just as Allah has done good to you and be enemies to his enemies. (for Allah has said;)
“And strive in the way of Allah sincerely for he has chosen you and named you Muslims” (And “that those who have died (Striving in his way) might die after a clear sign (Had been given to them) and those who go on to live might live after a clear sign (Had been given to them)” (Q8:42).
There is no strength other than by Allah, thus increase the remembrance of Allah and work for what will come after death, for whosever builds a good relationship with Allah, Allah will protect him from the harm or need of people. Allah surely decrees what is destined for mankind, where as they have no control over him and he has in store for them what they cannot have in store for him Allah is great. There is no power except by Allah, Elevated, the great.
Also, the prophet (S.A.W) delivered his last sermon which is known as Khutbatul wada (farewell sermon) on the Uranah valley of amount Arafat.
His words were quite clear and concise, and were directed to the entire humanity. After praising and thanking Allah, he said:
O People I lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
O people I just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your lord and that He will indeed reckon your deeds.
Allah has forbidden you to take unusual (interest). Allah destroys interest and gives increase for charities. Q2:276
Therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived, your capital, however, is yours to keep, you will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity.
Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas ibn Abdulmuttalib (prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived.
(musnud Ahmad 19774).
O people! Beware of Satan for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O you who have believed, enter in to Islam completely (perfectly) and do not following the footsteps of Satan, indeed, he is to you a clear enemy. Q2:208
O People! It is true that you have certain rights in regard to your women, but they also have rights over you.
O mankind, fear your lord, who created you from its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women, And fear Allah, through whom you ask one another and the wombs, indeed Allah is ever watching over you. Q1:1
Remember that you have taken them as your wives, only under Allah’s trust and with his permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness.
Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth, and he whose provision is restricted let him spend from what Allah has given him. Q65:7
And it is your right that they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O people listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah) and give your wealth in Zakat.
And establish prayer and give Zakah and bow with those who bow (in worship and obedience). Q2:43
Fast during the month of Ramadan and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) if you can afford to.
O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous Q2:183
Pilgrimage to Allah’s house is a duty unto mankind, for those who have the means (physical and financial) to undertake the journey Q3:97
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab, also a white has no superiority over a black except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslim constitute one one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimated to a Muslim, which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not therefore do injustice to yourselves. (Masnud Ahmad 19774).
Remember one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know (H) Q2:42
O people! No prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born.
Muhammad is not the father of (any) one of your men, but (he is) the messenger of Allah and seal (last) of the prophets. Q33:40
Reason well therefore, o people and understand words, which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur’an and the Sunnah (Hadith) and if you follow, you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again, and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listened to me directly. (Masnud Ahmad 19774).
Be my witness, o Allah that I have conveyed your message to your people.
This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. Q5:3
There is no power except by Allah, Elevated, the Great.
2.3 KHUTBAH OF KHULAFA’UR RASHIDUN
The first Khutbah (sermon) of Abubakar As-siddiq after he had been elected as caliph (successor) addressed the Muslims on Governance, justice, relationships between the ruler and citizens, eternal and domestic affairs
All praise is due to Allah and may the peace, blessings be upon his noble messenger (SAW) I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship, other than Allah, Him alone, without partner and Muhammad is His messenger whom He sent with guidance and true religion to mankind’s.
O people I have been appointed over you, though I am not the best among you, If I do well, then help me, and if I act wrongly, then correct me.
Truthfulness is synonymous with fulfilling the trust and lying is equivalent to treachery. The weak among you is deemed strong by me, until I return to them that which is rightfully theirs, Insha Allah (by the grace of God) and the strong among you is deemed weak by me, until I take from them what is rightfully (someone else’s) Insha Allah (by god grace).
No group of people abandons military or armed struggle in the path of Allah, except that Allah makes them suffer humiliation. And evil or mischief does not become widespread calamity.
Obey me so long as I obey Allah and his messenger, then I have no right to your obedience. Stand up now to pray, may Allah have mercy on your. (Al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah 6/305,306).
Similarly when prophet (S.A.W) died, it was Abubakar (the first caliph) who steps in to the mosque and addressed the people, saying;
O people, verify whoever worshipped beloved Muhammad, behold! Muhammad is indeed dead. But whoever worships Allah, behold! Allah is alive and will never die;
And then he concluded with a verse from the Qur’an Al-Kareem.
And the beloved Muhammad is but messenger have gone before him; if then he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels? Q3:144
KHUTBAH (SERMON) OF UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB
After Umar Ibn Al-Kattab was appointed as the second caliph (successor), in his first Friday Khutbah (sermon), he appealed to the congregation, explaining that during the lives of the prophet (S.A.W) and Abubakar, he assumed upon himself the role counter balancing their softness.
He gave this sermon after praising Allah and thanking him for his favors he said,
The mantle of caliphate has fallen on my shoulder’s I wear it before god that I never coveted this offices, I wished that it would have developed on some other person more worthy than me.
In the performance of my duties, I will seek guidance from the holy book and will follow the examples set by the holy prophet (S.A.W) and Abubakar. In this task, I seek your assistance. If I follow the right path, follow me. If I deviate from the right path, correct me so that we are not led astray.
Now brothers I offer a few prayers and you say Ameen to them.
O Allah, I am hard make me soft to promote the truth, to comply with your injunctions and to aspire.
For better life in world hereafter.
O Allah, soften my heart for faithful so that I attend to their needs with a sense of dedication.
O Allah give me the power of self criticism and self-assessment.
O people, you have some rights on me which you can always claim. One of your rights is that if anyone of you comes to me with a claim, he should leave satisfied. Another of your rights is that you can demand that I take nothing unjustly from the revenues of the state. you can also demand that I fortify your frontiers and do not put you in danger it is also your right that if you go to battle I should look after your families as a father would do this while you are away.
O people, remain conscious of Allah, forgive me my faults and help me in my task. Assist me in enforcing what is evil. Advise me regarding the obligations that have been imposed upon me by Allah.
I seek the forgiveness of Allah, for me and for you. May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon our noble Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W).
There is no power except by Allah, Elevated, the Great.
KHUTBAH OF CALIPH UTHMAN IBN AFFAN
The last Sermon (Khutbah) preached by Uthman Ibn Affan the third Caliph before a congregation ordained the Muslims to fear Allah in all their actions.
All praise is due to Allah. I thank Him and seek His aid may the peace and blessing of be upon his final messenger (S.A.W).
Verily Almighty Allah has only given you this world so that through it you may seek the next. He did not give it to you as something to rely on. Verily this world will vanish and the next will endure.
O people perishable things must not make you headless and distract you from things everlasting. Prefer that which endures to that which perishes, for this world will pass away and Allah is the ultimate goal of our journey.
O people fear Almighty Allah, for pear of Him is a shield against evil and a means to dwell with Him.
Whosoever, fears Allah, his sins will be forgiven and his reward will be many fold Q65:5
O people beware test God’s (favor towards you) be altered, Cling to your community and do not be divided in two factions.
He brought your hearts together so that by His blessing you became brothers. Q3:103
He concluded his Khutbah by saying Allah is great, there is no Power except by Him the Elevated.
KHUTBAH OF ALI IBN ABU-TALIB
On the day of Eid-ul-Fitr, the fourth Caliph (Successor) Ali Ibn Abu-Talib delivered a sermon in which he said:
All praise is due to Allah, may peace, blessings be upon his noble messenger.
O people! Verily this day of yours is the day when the righteous are awarded and the wretched are losers. It is a day which is similar to the one on which you shall be standing (before your lord).
Therefore, when you come out of your homes to go places of your prayer, remind yourselves about the day when you come out your homes to go to places of your prayer, remind yourselves about the day when you (your souls) shall come out of your bodies to go to your lord. When you stand on places of your prayer, remind yourselves of your standing in the presence of your Lord (on the day of Judgment). And when you return to your homes (after prayer), remind yourselves about your returning to your homes in Paradise.
O servants of Allah! Verily the minimum reward for those men and women who fasted (during Ramadan), is an Angel, who calls out to them on the last day of the last day of the month of Ramadan.
O servants of Allah! Verily the minimum reward for those men and women who fasted (during Ramadan), is an angel, who calls out to them on the last day of the month of Ramadan.
O servants of Allah! Rejoice the glad tiding that all your precious sins have been forgiven.
He conclude his Khutbah (sermon) by saying Allah is the most powerful and uncomparable. I seek the forgiveness of Allah, for me and for you. Send blessing on your prophet (S.A.W) may Allah’s peace blessing and mercy be upon him.
2.4 KHUTBAH OF PROMINENT SCHOLAR
A prominent scholar in Nigeria sheikh Ahmad Mahmud Gumi on his Khutbah (sermon), discusses the destination of all suicide Bombers is Hell.
All praise is due to Allah and bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except him alone, without partner and Muhammad (S.A.W) is his servant and messenger whom he sent with guidance and true religion.
O people! The prophet (S.A.W) is a mercy for mankind. He said the way to paradise is easy for those that follow his path.
Everybody in my Ummah is going to enter the paradise except he who refuses. And whoever obeys me enter the paradise and whoever disobeys me he has indeed refused (Al-Bukhari).
O people! For those that indulge themselves in Islamic sects violent, and agrees to use themselves as bombs do more than die in vain. Despite this ease of entering paradise, those that commit suicide for whatever reason have guaranteed for themselves the Hell Fire forever.
O people! Be aware that nobody should deceive you to take your own lives, saying that real jihad (striving or struggling) is fought to either win or get martyrdom.
The Shahadah (Affirmation) is gotten when killed by enemy action.
So let those fight in the cause of Allah who sell the life of this world for the hereafter. And he who fights in the cause of Allah and is killed or achieve victory we will bestow upon him a great reward. Q4:74
O people! It is forbidden to wish for death, talks less of committing suicide.
Do not wish for death I would wish for it (Al-Bukhari).
Islam is a practicable religion. We are required to do what we can do and leave the rest to the Al-Mighty Allah.
So fear Allah as much as you can; listen and obey and spend in charity for the benefit of your own soul and those saved from the covetousness of their own souls. They are the ones that achieve prosperity. Q64:16
O people! Whoever therefore will be taken by fanaticism or sickness or depression to kill himself, he has condemned himself to eternity in the Hell Fire, may Allah save us from it.
Whoever will kill himself with an iron, then he would be tormented with his iron in his hand injuring his belly continuously in Hell Fire forever. And whoever will drink poison and then kill himself, he will continue sipping the poison in Hell Fire forever fall from a rock then kill himself, he will continue falling in the Hell Fire forever. (Al-Bukhari 7:670)
O people whoever will explode reason or disguise will also continue to be in his explosion in Hell Fire forever, stressing that this is what the Hadith teaches. Suicide, he warned, are tormented by the same means they employ to kill themselves.
O people! Today we see young men killing themselves with explosive in the name of jihad yet they never reflect that those leaders that send them to such adventure never commit suicide nor send their children to commit it.
Allah is great, the elevated, the most high, the most merciful. And he alone we worship and he alone we asks for help may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon our final prophet (S.A.W)
S15.invision.fre.com>Islamic Society of Portsmouth>.
Teachings and Articles.
Abu Ja’afar Muhhamad Ibn Jarir Al-Tabart, Tarikh Al-Tabart (Beirut:Dar Al-Ma’Arif 1990) volume 4, page 384.
Surah Al-Qaf chapter 50 verses 29.
Surah At-Talaq chapter 65 verses 5, 7.
Surah Al-Anfan chapter 8 verses 42.
Surah Al-Baqarah chapter 2 verses 276, 208, 42, 43, 183.
Surah Ali Imran chapter 3 verses 144, 103, 97.
Surah An-Nisa chapter 4 verses 1, 74.
Surah Al-Ma’idah chapter 5 verses 3.
Surah Al-Ahzab chapter 33 verses 40.
Surah Al-Jumu’ah chapter 62 verses 9.
Surah At-Taghabun chapter 64 verses 16.
Masmud of Imam Ahmad Hadith No:19774.