Media and the Uses of Gratification Theory
The uses and gratification theory says that instead of focusing on media content, it directed attention towards the audience. Instead of considering the audience on positively exposed to strong media messages, it considered an active audience that consciously selected and used media content to satisfy various needs. Instead of focusing on what mass media do to people, it focuses on what people do with the media.
This theory assumes that the media competes with other sources of needs satisfaction. This focuses on the idea that each individual has several needs. In response to this, they have created a wide range of choices that will meet these needs.
This theory belongs to the interest effect theory. It is concerned with what people do with the mass media, instead of what the mass media do to the people. The assumption is that the people influence the effects that the mass media have on them. The people are not just passive receivers of the messages, but active influences of the message effects. This is because they selectively choose, attend to perceive and retain the media message on the basis of their needs beliefs, etc (Anaeto, Onabajo and Ositeso 2008, P.71).
In conclusion, the theory perceives the audience as actively influencing the effect process. Since they selectively choice, attend to, perceive and retain the media message on the basis of their needs beliefs etc.
The Perception Theory
This theory was propounded by B. Berelson and G.A Steiner in 1964.
Berelson and Steiner assumes that mass communication want audiences to pay attention to their messages, and make appropriate changes in attitudes or beliefs, or produce the desired behavioural responses. The perception theory tells us the process of interpreting messages is complex and that these goals may be difficult to achieve.
Berelson and Steiner (1964: p.88) state that perception is the “complex process by which people select, organize and interpret sensory stimulation into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.
Anaeto, Onabajo and Osifeso (2008, p.67) asserts that” the tendency for people’s perception to be influenced by wants, needs, attitude and other psychological factors. It means that different people can react to the communicator can assume that a message will have the same meaning for all receivers.
Anaeto, Onabajo and Osifeso (2008, p.68) asserts that ‘There is tendency for individuals to expose themselves to these communications, that are in agreement with their existing attitudes and to avoid those that are not.
According to According to Anaeto, Onabajo and Osifeso (2008, p.67) selective attention is “the tendency for individuals to pay attention to those parts of a message that are content with strongly held attitudes, beliefs or behavior”
Selective perception refers to a situation when an individual is consciously aware of only those incoming stimuli he wishes to perceive. As a result of this, the individual rejects any information that is not in line with his existing beliefs and expectations. Anaeto, Onbajo and Osifeso (2008. P.66) explained that “selective perception is the term applied to the tendency of peoples perception to be influence by wants, attitudes and other psychological factors”
Anaeto, Onabajo and osifeso (2008, p.68) have asserted that selective retention “is the tendency for the recall of information to be influenced by wants, needs, attitudes and other psychological factors”
This above discussed theories are relevant to this study because active audience are selectively exposed to, attend to, perceive and retain messages that sulfies their choice ideological and cultural beliefs.
Media Effects Theories
Media effects are social or psychological responses occurring in individuals, groups, or communities as a result of exposure to or processing of or acting on media messages. Media effects theories believes that the media has powerful effects on the audiences. The powerful effects model propounded by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1973 explains that the media