An Assessment Of Tricycle (Keke Napep) Riders And Traffic Violation


An Assessment Of Tricycle (Keke Napep) Riders And Traffic Violation A Case Study Of Maiduguri,Borno State.

Background to the Study
The inability of the conventional modes of transport such as Trains,buses, cars, Okada and ferry services to meet transportation demand owing to fleet depletion and high operational cost caused by down turn in economy,resulting in high record of accident from Okada motor cycles has led to unplanned emergence of para transit or non conventional mode of transportation popularly known as KEKE NAPEP (tricycle).
Tricycle refers to a commercial device where tricycle riders carry passengers for hire.The name TRICYCLE is as a result of the machine being a pedal driven vehicle with two wheel at the back and a wheel at front.KEKE NAPEP is known for it comfort ability and safety compare to Okada motorcycle. Kekenapep (Tricycle) became more useful and indispensable as soon as the federal government bound Okada motorcycle across several states in the country.In an ironic metaphor,the first group of tricycle transporters was then given the name “KEKE NAPEP.”Because of the comic irony of this name being used for tricycles and popularity of the manufacture which is India, the name Keke napep for commercial tricycle was never to be for gotten and eventually become as popular as it is okay.
The primary objective of most transport system is to make profit.This is because profit yield growth, survival and continuity in business.The various transport corporations recognize this fact.Over the years and prior to this contemporary age,a lot of factors had challenged the profitability of this transport system. Travelers across the nation have found it difficult to convey considerable goods which cannot be carried by lorry as a result of it meager nature and lesser weight,on several occasion business men and travelers are usually stranded and effectually get frustrated until the invention of this so called TRICYCLE which have gone a long way to assist the travelers and transporters in conveying the goods from the manufacturers and sites to their destination comfortably and safely compare to Okada motorcycle. The study therefore examines the following problems;

  1. What are the motives for establishing Tricycle as public transport system in Nigeria and subsequently in Kwara State?
  2. To what extent are these motives being achieved?


  1. The aim of this project is to evaluate Tricycle as public transport system in an urban area within Ipata-Sango


  1. To assist the effectiveness of tricycle compare to other means of public transport system.
  2. To determine the significance of tricycle compare to other means of public transport
  3. To investigate the level of traffic violation by Keke Napep riders

Evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transport is considered worthy of study because of the inability of travelers to convey their goods and produce from the market and farm including sites to their destination. Also a lot of Okada motorcycles multiply on the various roads without helping in conveying of goods and even safety entirely especially within Ipata-Sango Ilorin. Therefore, to assist the public especially in the aspect of safety and transportation of goods, there is a need to study in to the evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transportation in an urban area.
This study is limited to Maiduguri,Borno state . The major factor considered here is

  1. Avoidance of overloading
  2. Adherence to the approved speed limit
  3. Abstains from drunkenness
  4. Avoidance of rough riding
  5. Ensuring the tricycles are protected with the mini canopy(water proof) for safety
  6. We also focus on the plate number and uniformity of the vehicles colour
  7. The total number of passengers patronizing tricycle.

All passengers are likely to encounter one form of challenges or the other. In the course of my research, I observed that the passengers usually encounter diverse forms of challenges such as;

  1. Exposure to rainfall: In most cases, the build up of the TRICYCLE           (Keke  Napep) makes the passengers vulnerable to external forces such as rainfall and for     this reason most of the passenger found it uncomfortable to board because they usually           get wet when travelling.
  2. Excessive Wind pressure: the two sides of the Tricycle is obviously opened with no doors          unlike vehicles that are properly secured. This opening usually expose the           passengers to       high wind pressure which may subsequently result to illness especially           when the vehicle   is on high speed.

iii.      Uncomfortability : on several occasions, the passengers seat at both front and back are           usually tight as a result of variation in size and shape of the passengers. The  bigger the           passengers, the more tight and uncomfortable they feel while travelling.

  1. Accident: The kind of accident associated with this form of Transportation (KEKE NAPEP) is usually fatal, though they seems to be very rare on local road. This factor also   discourage some passengers from travelling by Tricycles.

In collecting data for this project work, various methods were employed. Data used was collected by using both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary collection method includes.

  1. The administration of structured questionnaires
  2. Personal interviews (with selected of staff and passengers) observations.

The secondary method includes the use of related texts

  • Related texts
  1. Journals
  2. Magazines and write up on the use of Tricycle as a public transport system
  3. Annual report and account of profit maximization. This help to give a clear exploration of the study.

1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of the problem 1
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the study 2
1.3 Justification of the theory 2-3
1.4 Scope of the study 3-4
1.5 Description of the study area 4-5
1.6 Proposed Methodology 5-6
2.0 Literature Review 7
2.1 Tricycle as a mode of transportation 7
2.2 Importance of Tricycle (Keke Napep) as a mode of public
Transport in an urban area 8
2.3 Short coming of Tricycle 8-9
2.4 The importance of wearing helmet while riding a Tricycle 9-10
2.5 Requirement to be met by helmet used by Keke Napep riders (Tricyclist) 10-11
3.0 Methodology 12
3.1 Oral Interview 12-13
3.2 Issuing of Questionnaire 13-14
3.3 Field Work 14
3.4 Kwara State Tricycle operation (Control Safety E.T.C) laws 2010 14-15
4.0 Analysis and Discussion of result 16
4.1 Introduction 16
4.2 Oral Interview 16
4.3 Questionnaire 17
4.4 Field Work 17-18
Characteristic of operators (Tricyclist) 21-23
Challenges or factors militating against the smooth running
of the trade 21
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 23
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation 23


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