Accessing the relationship between lifestyle and health problems suffered by the people
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
An individual‟s health depends alot on their lifestyle. Maintaining physical and mental health is crucial to an individual‟s longevity. The more time spent on hygiene, physical fitness, and diet regulation, the healthier lifestyle they have. Those who choose to participate in any kind of physical activity on weekly basis are generally healthier than those who don‟t. Mental illness may occur through various ways for example, depression may promote mental illness through stress and anxiety, poor habit eating not promoting good physical health. Poor habits may eventually lead to a poor or even dangerous life style. More interestingly, a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle will most likely be transmitted across generations.
United States (Administration on aging and retirement, 2005), changes in body composition, reduction in physical activity, and physiological factors affect the dietary requirements of retired Bozetti (2003). As people age, body fat increase and lean body mass decreases, which reduces protein reserves in the body. The predisposition of older individuals to
chronic pain or unless also may limit physical activity reduced physical activity and decrease in lean body, mass lower energy needs older adult. Consume fever calorie than young adults to obtain adequate protein and micro nutrients reduced energy needs, Bozettic (2003) retired especially those in low income groups, are at a high risk for nutritional deficiencies due to poor diet and low nutrients intake.
The problem of the retired civil servants in the society is supposed to be a tropical issue, especially in Katsina state, Nigeria. This is so because in the problems of poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and corruption, afflicts almost all segments of the society, but most biting to the retired population (Kasim, 2007).
In any given society the retirees is referred to, or perceived as „senior citizen‟ previewed experience in life on which the younger population are supposed to draw for aspiration, motivation and orientation. Yet this is very important segment of the population could be said to be among the weak and vulnerable population in our society almost in the same category with children, orphans and the disabled. This is because of the various problems that the retirees face and in the society particularly with regards to lifestyle.
Socioeconomic status affects overall human functioning, including their physical and mental health e.g. when retired. Income and access to resources mitigate a social problem that ultimately affects retirees, retired people in Nigeria this category remain among te most economically vulnerable groups, the majority of retired do not work or have fewer options for continued income in Katsina state. They are at risk for rising costs of living, which may place them at an economic disadvantage (social security administration, 2006).
Recent studies indicated that the quality of care afforded to retired adults with medicate condition is substandard in Katsina state (Adamu, 2004). Furthermore, older people who work are less likely to maintain employment as their health declines.
Psychological health and wellbeing of the retired in Katsina state, the researcher observed that poverty is the risk factor for declines in mental health among the retirees. Those at
the lower levels of socioeconomic status are often most afflicted with psychological disorder.
Poverty affects the health of the retired in significant ways. Some of the retired in Katsina were simply unable to afford. The basics of minimal health care and prescription drugs
e.g. the urban retirees. It is not unusual to find this group skipping on their prescriptions, skipping days or cutting the dosage. They may even share prescription drugs with others or take medication that is out of date and therefore ineffective or potentially dangerous. All this amount to drug abuse which is dangerous to their failing health.
Social activities of the retirees are somehow affected when they are unable to afford simple care, e.g. eyeglasses or hearing aids. They are unable to afford simple care, e.g. eyeglasses or hearing aids. They begin to isolate themselves and feel cutoff from the life around them. Many cannot afford simple nutritious food/ three square meal in aday. They prepare to buy the cheapest. Many retirees died of heat exhaustion had no access to air conditioning and were too afraid to open their windows fearing intruders. They died in their sealed apartments; they heat their rooms often using dangerous methods such as firewood and charcoal.
Some retired in Katsina cannot afford even the simple pleasures of social interaction or entertainment. Combine this with physical limitation, health problems like hypertension, diabetes, body pains, arthritis etc. and unsafe community or neighborhoods.
Kamala (2007) indicates that the retired people in the society suffered from ill health and are not properly taking care of by their children or the society. Also within Katsina state the retired are mostly seen by the researcher begging for assistance on the streets, places where they
work before. This prompted the researcher to look into the type of care and welfare given to the retired in Katsina state.
Thus majority of the retiree‟s population do not get their benefits on time. Most of them rely on the active members of the family for support, particularly their children if they have any. Where income earning children of this group could not meet their demands they depend on good will of relatives and good samaritans in the community/society. This is why a lot of them are compelled to live a life of begging in one form or the other. In this situation the mode of their life style changes and involves them in socially disapproved behaviours. Similarly, retired health status can also be determined by the lifestyle where there is change in health status there is possibility of being unhealthy, disability due to disease like hypertension and depression. Most of the retired were facing problem with their general health due to lack of good nutritional food intake, especially those who reside in rural areas. The retired people experience financial hardships following retirement, therefore finding it difficult to care for themselves, eat good food and healthy life, from there the situation worsened (Salim, 2002). It is as a result of the above disturbing issues that the researcher was worried to investigate the relationship between life style and health status of retired civil servants in Katsina State, Nigeria
The major objective of the study is to examine the relationship between lifestyle and health status of retired civil servants in Katsina State.
The Specific Objectives of the Study are to;
- determine the relationship between the health status and food consumption patterns of retired civil servants in Katsina
- determine the relationship between the lifestyle and income of retired civil servants in Katsina
- identify the social network that exists for enhancing lifestyle and health status of the retired civil servant in Katsina
- determine the care given by the relations of the retired civil servants and his/her lifestyle in Katsina
- What is the relationship between health status and food consumption patterns of retired civil servants in Katsina State?
- What is the relationship between lifestyle and income of retired civil servants in Katsina State?
- What is the relationship between social network that exists for enhancing lifestyle and health status of the retired civil servant in Katsina
- What is the relationship between the care given by the relations of the retired civil servants and his/her lifestyle in Katsina State?
- There is no significant relationship between the health status and food consumption patterns of retired civil servants in Katsina
- There is no significant relationship between lifestyle and income of retired civil servants in Katsina
- There is no significant relationship between social network that exists for enhancing lifestyle and health status of the retired civil servant in Katsina
- There is no significant relationship between the care given by the relations of the retired civil servants and his/her lifestyle in Katsina
1.3 Significance of the study
This study is going to be of benefit to policy makers, civil society, general public, scholar, academicians and Home economist.
The study will enlighten policy makers, based on facts and what need to be done with regards to retired civil servants lifestyle and health status in Katsina State and this could be achieved publications and seminars. For civil society the study will help and provide information on how to save judiciously and prepare for their retirement and this could be achieved through awareness campaign during and after their services.
To the general public, the study would provide general information on how retired civil servants strive to make ends meet and such information that would facilitate information sharing and discharge, and the general public would have access to this findings through radio and other media publicities. For Scholars, academicians and Home economist, this study would serve as an avenue or source of information which would aid further studies and it would be available for the academicians and scholars in school libraries.
There are several assumptions underlying this study, it was assumed that unobservable concepts such as individual expectations of lifestyle, and health status of retired civil servants would be qualified and measured by the instrument. It is assumed that the retired civil servants have expectations for good lifestyle and good health status. The researcher assumed that the individual retired civil servants would provide truthful and accurate answer to the questions measuring the concepts of interest in this study.
The research work was delimited to lifestyle (nutrition) and health status (depression, diabetes, hypertension and cancer) of the retired civil servants population in Katsina State. The study was also delimited to food consumption patterns of retirees in Katsina state. The study was also delimited to the three senatorial zones of Katsina States. The study was be delimited to both male and female retired civil servants.