Background to the study

This legal treatise is intended to discover the various factors bearing on the topic of the Defence of Mistake in Nigerian Law As prejudges, a brief account of the historical background of the two major enactments, containing the bulk of substantive criminal Jaw in Nigeria is recited. The enactments are the Penal Code  and the Criminal Code’’. The Codes are supplemented by other enactments as well as judicial decisions.

In many situations, a criminal defendant may wish to argue that he or she never intended to commit a crime and that the criminal act that occurred was a result of a mistake of facts regarding the circumstances of the crime or a misunderstanding concerning the law at the time. Such mistakes of fact can be applied to a variety of criminal activities, but mistakes of law are only rarely allowed as full defenses to criminal conduct.

In the defence of mistake, there exists the reasonable man’s test which  is to the effect that the a reasonable man standing in life, but the defence  of mistake goes further to add that the accused will be judged as liable on the facts as he believed them.

          According to Glanville Williams, there is no objective test in  respect of mistke as it need not be reasonable. It has been stated that an accused lacks legal fault if can prove that the lacked awareness if the fact bringing him within the definition of an offence an that the thought otherwise because he had made a mistake.

A mistake of fact is only a defense if it negates a material element of the crime. Every crime has elements that the government must prove in order to convict you. For example, one element of theft is that you must intend to deprive the owner of his/her property permanently. If your mistake of fact makes it such that this or some other element is not present, you have a defense and cannot be convicted.

Not only must you mistake of fact negate an element of the crime, it must also be an honest mistake. In many states, your mistake must also be a reasonable one.

The concept of mistake of fact can be very complicated. Here’s an example that may help. Suppose you are working in a library and you brought a laptop with you. When you leave, you take someone else’s laptop, honestly believing it is yours. You have made a mistake of fact: you thought the laptop was yours, but it isn’t. This mistake negates the intent to the “deprive permanently” element of theft. This mistake also is an honest, reasonable mistake. So, you have a defense to theft charges in this example.

A mistake of law is where you are mistaken or ignorant about the law. For example, if you believe that you don’t have to come to a complete stop at a “Stop” sign when there are no other cars at the intersection, you have made a mistake of law. Whether there are cars or not, you must come to a complete stop. In almost every case, you will not be allowed to argue that you didn’t know or misunderstood the law. That is, it won’t be a defense.

Student Unionism and University Administration in Nigeria

Student Unionism and University Administration in Nigeria


The university environment in which the student exists is saddled with many problems. However, various attempts to cope, with these problem had often left some needs of the studens unprotected. This has a considerable influence on the outlook of students. Student unionism becomes a kind of response on the part of the student to protect the interest of their members. Thus, it becomes a forum where students could organize themselves and deliberate on matters of common intcrcst. Student union provided a medium for students to articulate their needs and problems towards achieving a common goal. The student position in the l university administration should not be over- emphasized. The recognition of the students’ dignity and interests should be a matter of concern to the university administration. However, the inability of the university authority to address themselves  sometimes to the problems of students due to financial constraint and other reasons, and also the radical manner in which  some student leaders often attempt to advance the interests of the students had in recent past led to some disturbances. In view of these of these situations




African literature is a manifestation of African culture, African society, African historical, political, social and religious experiences. Thus, it is a reflection and celebration of African culture (Awa, 2006). Achebe therefore depicts an Igbo society which has dignity and prominence in his Things Fall Apart. All the same, Achebe did not forget to present the weaknesses in the Igbo culture that require drastic and immediate change thus, eliminating the gloomy ones for the growth and development of his revered society.

Democracy is a system of government in which power is vested in the people, who rule directly or through freely elected representatives. So, Abraham Lincoln the 16th President of America describes Democracy as “The government of the people, by the people and for the people”. This is opposed to dictatorship, where absolute power is vested in a tyrant. Achebe presents the Igbo society that has a democratic system of government. For instance, before important decisions are taken, the elders or “Ndichie” and others gather together at the village square or Ilo or at the market place to take decisions that affect the people or individuals. The community is in control and the collective will and decision of the members of the community prevail. This is what obtains in a democratic dispensation. This is seen in chapter 1, P.9, where the people were informed that a daughter of Umuofia was killed in Mbaino. Collectively the people agreed that Umuofia should follow the law-going to war with Umuofia or offering Umuofia a young man and a young Virgin as compensation for the death of the daughter of Umuofia.

Many others spoke, and at the end it was decided to follow the normal course of action (P. 9)

Justice is another feature of democracy. Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. Achebe’s Igbo system adopts an effective and efficient system of justice. This makes Igbo system noble. Disputes in the community are presented to the elders or the egwugwu, the greatest and respected  masked spirits of the land, which is played by the titled men of the clan. This is the tribunal who takes decisions after hearing from the both sides. This is observed in chapter ten of Things Fall Apart, where the village holds a ceremonial gathering to administer justice. The village ancestral spirits, known as egwugwu are presented with the case of Uzowulu, who reports that his in-laws took his wife Mgbafor and therefore, request the  return of  her bride price to him. Odukwe , Mgbafor’s brother clarifies that his family took Mgbafor to rescue her from daily brutal beatings by Uzowulu, her husband. He maintains that his sister will return to her husband only if he swears never to beat her again. The egwugwu consult and their leader, the Evil Forest, gave a verdict, that Uzowulu takes wine to his in-laws and begs his wife to come back home. He reminds Uzowulu that “fighting a woman is not braver.

It is not bravery when a man fights a woman P. 75

Odukwu is also instructed to accept his brother-in-law’s offer and Mgbafor returns to her husband. To Uzowulu,

Go to your in-laws with a pot of wine and beg your wife to return to you P.75 To Odukwe

If your in-law brings wine to you let your sister go with him. P. 75

Trouble erupts as this acceptable system of justice is interfered with by the intrusion of the district commissioners and court messengers, Christianity.


Teaching Methods and Academic Performance in Physical and Health Education among Secondary School Students

Teaching Methods and Academic Performance in Physical and Health Education among Secondary School Students


This study investigates “Teaching methods and Academic Performance in Physical and Health Education among Secondary School Students in Etinan Local Government Area”. Three research hypotheses were formulated. One hundred and twenty (120) students were randomly selected from six (6) schools and assigned to three teaching methods. The study was a quasi experimental research design. Data for analysis were gathered through Physical and Health Education Students Achievement Test (PHESAT) and validated by the supervisor. The hypotheses were tested using independent t-test statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significant. Findings showed that students performed better in Physical and Health Education when taught using discussion method; also discovery method is more preferable than lecture method. Based on the findings it was recommended that teachers should let go lecture teaching method and adopt discussion teaching method when teaching Physical and Health Education.  



1.1 Background to the Study

Teaching methods are different principles, techniques and/or ways that are used to instruct students in a learning environment. The methods adopted by a teacher will depend on the skills or information the teacher would like to convey to the students, some of the most common methods used daily by teachers are role playing, case study method, group project, problem solving and discussion methods. While these methods are used daily, it is necessary that a skillful teacher needs to be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subject at different classifications. Adage (2008) affirms that many methods of teaching exist in education and these methods are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. The teacher therefore has the freedom to choose which method he considers appropriate in teaching a particular subject or lesson. The learners rely on the resourcefulness of the teacher to perform.

Ekah (2006) opined that method is a procedure adopted to reach an expected goal; it expresses how a thing is done and the way to do it. The author explained further that method embodies the approach or various approaches utilized by the teacher to get his learners to achieve an expected result. Methods adopted by teachers can either make or mar the learners, according to Ekah (2006), while a good method adopted by the teacher may end up changing a bad learner to a good learner, bad teaching methods can turn a good learner to a bad learner.

Teaching is one of the most challenging and crucial profession in the world. Teachers are critical in facilitating learning and in making it more efficient and effective, they hold the key to the success of any educational system and they are accountable for successful human development. Afe in Okorie (2004) opined that even with the best educational policy, design and expenditure of colossal sum of money for education, the ultimate realization of any set of arms for education depends on the teachers as he/she will ultimately be responsible for translating policy into action and principle into practice and in his interaction with the student.

Teaching Methods and Academic Performance in Physical and Health Education among Secondary School Students
The teacher’s role as an instructional agent is therefore a complex one as he/she must master various instructional strategies and their applicability as it affects his/her area of specialization. Odunola (2011) and Ubeda (2012) identified teaching methods that are commonly adopted by teachers in a lesson class. These include; discussion, demonstration and lecture method. However, Eddie (2006) in an earlier study added that project method, discovery method and field trip are crucial to the teaching process particularly in science and technology, that two or more of these methods could be appropriately combined in a particular lesson to create effect. Effective teaching and learning is a function of method used by the teacher.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Over the years, there have been poor academic performance of secondary school students in both internal and external examination and have become a concern not only to teachers but also to parents and the society at large. Hence, teaching methods could contribute to the decline of academic Performance of physical and health education students.

Based on this report, this research intends to find out to what extent do methods used by teachers in teaching Physical and Health Education in secondary schools influence the academic achievement of students.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The study investigated into teaching methods and academic performance of secondary school students in Physical and Health Education in Etinan Local Government Area. Specifically the study:

Examine the effect of discovery method in student academic performance in Physical and Health Education.
Assess the effect of discussion method on academic performance of secondary school students in Physical and Health Education.
Investigate the effect of lecture method on academic performance of secondary school students in Physical and Health Education.
1.4 Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis were formulated to guide this study.

There is no significant difference in academic performance in Physical and Health Education between students taught with discovery method and those taught with lecture method.
There is no significant difference in academic performance in Physical and Health Education between student taught with discussion method and those taught with discovery method.
iii. There is no significant difference in academic performance in Physical and Health Education between students taught with discussion method and those taught with lecture method.

1.5 Significance of the Study

      Findings obtained on the research will;

Guide teachers on the choice of appropriate methods for teaching.
Serve as a source of reference materials to those who will undertake the study of this nature in future.
Help government educational administrators when making policy statements concerning teacher training and provision of facilities for secondary schools.




The following report will investigate the role of the mass media in politics and will aim to prove the hypothesis that the mass media reinforces existing stereotypes and prejudices in society.

The modern media play a central role not only within the political processes of every type, ranging from coverage of major political events and institutions to effects on campaigns and elections but also in any individual’s life, providing many necessary information services as well as offering possibilities for self-enlightenment and entertainment. We live in a society that depends on information and communication to keep us moving the right direction and do our daily activities like work, entertainment, health care, education, personal relationships, travelling and anything else that we have to do. The media have a powerful role as people have come to treat television, radio, newspapers, magazines and internet as the basis on which to think and act in the world. Thus media have a potential power to influence peoples’ attitude, opinion and behaviour around many sensitive issues, such as gender, ethnicity and age. It can be further argued that, although the question about mass media direct effect on British politics is a contentious one, it would be practically impossible to prove that the media has no effect at all on liberal politics. However, it can be difficult at times to determine whether the media plays a direct or an indirect role in affecting politics.


Politics– the process through which individual and collective decisions are made. It is the activity in which goals are agreed and pursued through policies designed to achieve these goals. It is a characteristic of most social systems: family, community, region, state and international community. When human beings form a group this leads to discussion in order to decide what their community will seek to achieve. The discussion of different goals and priorities often lead to conflicts (Selby, 1995, p1). Politics is the process which resolves these conflicts. Politics touches everybody on any level to a more or lesser extent.

Stereotypeis whether favourable or unfavourable an exaggerated belief associated with a category. Its function is to justify our conduct in relation to that category (Allport, 1954, p191). Stereotyped characteristics in a category are not always unsupported by facts. Those stereotypes may have their origins. In fact, people use types and categories to easily make sense of the world. According to Hall (1997), however, the distinctive difference between typing and stereotyping is that ‘stereotypes get hold of the few simple, vivid, memorable, easily grasped and widely recognized characteristics about a person, reduce everything about the person to those traits, exaggerate and simplify them, and fix them without change or development to eternity’.

Prejudiceis an implicitly held belief, often about a group of people. Race, economic class, gender or sex, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age and religion are other common subjects of prejudice. It can be used to characterize beliefs about other things as well, including “any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence” (Aberson et al., 2000). The base for prejudice usually form the stereotypes.

Arguments to prove the hypothesis

The hypothesis will be proved with a range of arguments. Firstly the issues around gender stereotyping will be discussed, which is one of the most common stereotypes across the world. Gender stereotypes involve generalisations about male and female identities and about appropriate roles and aspirations for women and men. Generalisations about women and men inevitably involve false assumptions as they negate the diverse identities, aspirations and personalities of individual women and men. Current stereotypes of men and women not only rest on false assumptions but also reflect and reinforce a male dominance. There are several issues surrounding the gender stereotypes, such as beauty stereotypes (unattainable beauty, reinforced culture of the thinness), the economical side of gender stereotypes: ‘sex sells’ with its downgrading impact on women or self-esteem of young girls.

The mass media use stereotypes to provide truncated, fast and simple information to its audiences. However, a major influence in the use of these stereotypes is the profit. Advertisers in particular want safe representations of the dominant culture’s ideology to represent their product. Mass media’s use of stereotypes is clearly based on the dominant culture’s ideologies. Advertising certainly is the major component that has contributed to many of the negative outcomes as a result of reinforcement of the stereotyping. Cummings (2003) is writing in ‘The diet business: Banking on failure’ that ‘dieting’ is a business with enormous financial interest in making sure that it continues, which is controversial in itself.

A Korean research about beauty stereotypes conducted by Jee, Min-Joo and Oh, Byoung-il (2009) explores how Korean mass media represent Korean beauty stereotype and further reinforces this stereotype both directly and indirectly. Within these stereotypes women are characterized as being passive and subject-less and as objects to be observed and chosen, women are compelled to prioritize their appearances over other merits and to follow beauty stereotypes. Undoubtedly a major influence has played here western culture, which itself is very familiar with the beauty stereotyping. The problem in Korea is that these stereotypes, however have led to a problems with social and political character. The authors state that in Korea the more a woman possesses stereotyped beauty, the greater the chance for success in both in marriage and career. Korea has rewarded beautiful people with well-paying jobs, improved marriage prospects and respect. Considering that Korean women see their bodies as the primary means towards self-improvement, it is not surprising that a great number of Korean women have a favourable view towards cosmetic surgery. According to a study of mental health of Korean adolescents, conducted by Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development in 2002, 71.6% female high school students responded that they wanted to get plastic surgery, an increase by 13.7% to the year before. While in Korea situation might be more extreme it can be assumed that in Europe and America there are similar tendencies.

The Impact of COVID -19 Pandemic on Tourism and Hotel Sector in Nigeria


This study was carried out to The Impact of COVID -19 Pandemic on Tourism and Hotel Sector in Nigeria. The study aimed to ascertain the frequency of hotel users and its corresponding impact on hotel revenue. The study employed the survey method. A total of 147 staffs of six selected hotels in Lagos were enrolled in the study. Using the simple percentage method of response analysis and the chi-square statistical tool; the findings revealed that hotels have been adversely affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. This has resulted in the reduction of workforce due to inability to meet up financial obligations. The aftermath of the pandemic also plagued hotels, as hotel users are yet to resume hotel activities. Further statistical results shows that there is a negative relationship between the patronage level of hotel users and the revenue for hotel operators. The study recommends the launch of Covid-19 awareness and prevention campaign by hotel operators to reassure hotel users of their safety. Furthermore, guidelines on the Covid-19 must be maintained at all times.


List of Project Topics on Banditry


Below are interesting topic related from banditry which have been culled from The topics are found useful.

List of Project topics on banditry

  4. Impact of Bandit Activities in Small and medium scale enterprises in North East Nigeria
  5. Banditry: Problems and challenges facing the establishment of regional policing in Nigeria
  8. Prons of banditry in Nigeria GNDP
  9. The implications of banditry in Nigerian foreign policy objectives
  10. The effect of Bandits in the livelihood of small scale farmers in Northern Nigeria
  11. Banditry and academic achievement of undergraduate students



Voting Apathy among the Nigerian Electorates in 2019 General Elections


Independent National Electoral Commission is constitutionally empowered to conduct a transparent election in Nigeria, but the seeming declining interest to participate on the electoral system by the electorates’ calls for questioning. This study therefore aims at establishing the causes of voting apathy among the Nigerian electorates. The study adopted both Survey Research Design and Secondary Sources of Data Collection as Method of information gathering, while Rational Choice Theory was chosen as the theoretical foundation. Findings revealed that poor political and voters education in congruence with low level of education, illiteracy, especially whereby majority of voters (about 50%) neglect to pick up their permanent voters cards; and could not be accredited to vote; that the nature of Nigerian politics is another factor since Nigeria politics is labelled politics of acrimony, bitterness; that since elected representatives fail to deliver on their campaign promises, that the electorates have lost trust in the government and finds it difficult to participate in the electoral process. The study recommends amongst others; the provision of security; ensuring and sustaining justice; and guaranteeing of liberty etc.

I.            INTRODUCTION

Voting apathy in recent times have become seemingly an innocuous issues in the democratic process in Nigeria. While the purpose of every government is to develop and implement policies for the benefit of its citizens, it is also the right and responsibility of the citizens to elect their leaders through the ballot. A nation’s political foundations are built on elections. [1] asserted that voting is a basic process that enables the citizens to choose their own leaders and their representatives in government which entails that voters have the capacity to influence the policies and programmes of a political party and the entire administrative system. In Nigeria, where every adult is given the right to vote, irrespective of sex, class, occupation; statistics in the last two decades have however shown that many people do not participate in elections even when they have been registered by the nations electoral body [2]. His or her vote and those of others, elects the representatives that form the government and govern the country. It has also been observed that despite the increased rate of voters registration owing to the rise in population and political awareness, the rate of voting in Nigeria continue to drop in every election conducted in the country just as the number of unclaimed voter cards keeps increasing.

[3] asserted that voter apathy seems to have emerged as a major problem in mature and emerging democracies, settled and volatile societies, large and thriving economics, as well as small and troubled ones, among youth, men/women and other marginalized groups as much as among mainstream dominant interest groups. Voter apathy could be measured by the percentage of registered voters and the turnout during the elections. In other words, the percentage of the registered voters who turn out to vote on election day, and the percentage of voting age population, registered or not registered, that cast their ballots on election day [4].

[5] articulated that every election cycle, the number of Nigerians who vote appears to have repeatedly shrunk in spite of the ever growing number of registered voters and this has been the pattern since 1999 when Nigeria returned to democratic rule. In his analysis, between the last election in 2015 and the 2019 election, over sixteen million (16.58) Nigerians according to the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), became eligible to vote for the first time; yet preliminary figures of the number of people who took part in the 2019 elections showed a shrinking voter base such that collations by INEC in states such as Abia, Enugu, Ebonyi, Rivers and some others witnessed the lowest turnout, with less than thirty percent (30%) of their registered voters making the ballot. This in stark contrast to the 1999 general election where about seventy percent (70%) of all registered voters turned out to usher in Nigeria’s new democracy.

Attempts have been made to link the above to certain inhibiting factors on voter participation in electoral process in Nigeria. In this regard, [6] lamented that many people have lost trust and confidence in the government and their elected representatives since those elected to represent the people have always failed to deliver on the promises made to the electorate during campaigns. In her view, after they are elected and sworn into office, they turn demigods. This makes people lose confidence in them and as such manifests in voting

apathy recorded in almost every elections conducted in Nigeria [7], [8]. This is corroborated by [9] earlier position that politicians make series of promises during election campaigns; hence most of these promises are far from being fulfilled after they are voted into power. As a result of this, most voters lose interest in any political activities. Voter apathy experienced before, during and after the election could be expatiated on the basis of lack of trust/confidence in the government, fear of intimidation by hired thugs/security agents,  campaign crises, bad governance, election fraud/violence, poor political education, poverty and dearth of infrastructural development in the state, among others. These factors no doubt seem to have contributed to political manoeuvre during the election and as such made caricature of our nascent democracy.

The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) being the institution saddled with the electoral responsibilities of the country has been constantly knocked down on the grounds of low level of voter education to quell the menace of voter apathy in Nigeria’s electoral process. In this regard, [10] ascribed that poor political and voter’s education in congruence with low level of education, illiteracy in Nigeria has been a major bane on voter participation in democratic process in Nigeria. As such, the outcome of elections depicts high degree of voter apathy. He decried a situation whereby nearly fifty percent (50%) of registered voters neglected to pick up their PVC’s and therefore, could not be accredited to vote as a result of inadequate mobilization by INEC.

Statement of the Problem

It has become extremely worrisome that over the years, there seems to be significant decline in the rate of voter’s turnout during elections in Nigeria. Going through the analysis of official records obtained from INEC website, it revealed that 52.3% of the registered voters voted in the 1999 elections; the figure rose to 69.1% in 2003, then went down to 57.4% in 2011, 43.6% in 2015 and only a handful of 34.74% of the registered voters actually voted in the just concluded 2019 presidential elections (INEC, 2019-generalelections). The News Agency of Nigeria, 2019 in the same vein reported that the 34.75% of voters in the 2019 general elections represents 26,614,190 electorates who cast their votes during elections and that 33.18% representing 27,324,583 of the 82,344,107 registered voters were valid votes that led to the final decision of INEC, hence the declaration of Muhammadu Buhari as President on the Presidential and National Assembly elections held on 23rd February 2019.

The above scenario presents a gloomy picture of voter participation and democracy in Nigeria especially when recourse is made to the fact that Nigeria’s population has been approximated to about two hundred million (200m) persons. Supposedly, the affairs of Nigeria state is supposed to be run by elected officials whom greater majority of the electorates elected, but the electorates feels disenchanted and allows of the affairs of the greater population to be decided by few inactive politicians.

Again, when very few people vote, the politicians elected do not represent the beliefs and values of the general population. Voter apathy is therefore been compared with a sort of political depression, where one feels helpless and unable to influence important events.

On the basis of this, this study investigates voter apathy and interrogates the role of INEC in improving voter participation in the national electoral process.

The specific objectives of the study are aimed at:

  1. To determine the factors responsible for voting apathy among the electorate in the 2019 general elections.
  2. To examine the effects of voting apathy among the electorates on the development of Nigeria’s democracy.
  3. To establish the role of INEC in reducing voting apathy among the electorates for democratic development in Nigeria.

Impact of EndSARS Protest On Businesses And The Nigerian Economy

The past few days in Nigeria have been nothing short of unbelievable for many Nigerians, the EndSARS peaceful protest, and its effect on businesses. At first, it all started like a joke and a norm, when the people raised their voices and so “NO!” towards police brutality. The first day, led to another and then another while spreading like wildfire during harmattan. It lingered into days, and then weeks, with movement and businesses grounded to a halt in most commercial cities in Nigeria. The protest hit the international scene, and Nigeria took the center-stage, as the international media beamed their light on us.

One would be hard-pressed to describe the events without seeming to take sides with either part of the standoff as emotions, euphoria and sometimes, unfounded principles have seemed to become the order of the day. The political class, business leader, rich, and poor were all stakeholders in this movement, and the ripple effect took on the economy, as businesses grounded to a halt.

However, the domino effect of the EndSARS peaceful protest has had a devastating impact on the fragile Nigerian economy. With an oil economy trying to pick up from the ruins of the cover-19 pandemic, a recession is unavoidable. Clearly, an economy this fragile can’t survive the economic impact of the #EndSARS peaceful protests, as most businesses were on lock and key, while movement became a fairy tale.

Effects of EndSARS Protest in Nigeria Are:

  1. loss of jobs
  2. increase in violence
  3. school shutdown
  4. low income expenditure
  5. increase in inflation rate
  6. high rate of extra-judicial killings
  7. destruction of lagos state governments property