Background of the Study

Chemistry is recognized widely as being of great importance internationally both for economic well-being of nations and because of the need for scientifically literate citizens (Fraser and Walberg, 1995). Knowledge of Chemistry and technology is therefore a requirement in all countries and all people globally due to the many challenges that are facing them. These challenges include emergences of new drug resistant diseases, effects of genetic experimentation and engineering, ecological impact of modern technology, dangers of nuclear war and explosions and global warming among others (Alsop & Hicks, 20011). As a result there are rapid changes taking place in industry, communication, agriculture, and medicine. Chemistry as an instrument of development plays a dominant role in bringing about these changes by advancing technological development, promoting national wealth, improving health and industrialization (Validya, 2003). Weham, Dorlin, Snell and Taylor (1984) emphasized that Chemistry are and will remain the fundamental subjects through the ages.

Statistics on international trends in Chemistry subjects selection in 46 countries shows that in the US, among fourth graders in 2007, males continued to prefer Chemistry subjects to females in where males scored significantly higher overall than females in Chemistry (Mullis, Martin and Foy, 2008).The 1986 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) carried out in the United States earlier had reported that boys had outperformed girls in Chemistrys achievement and the gender gap increased as students progressed in school. A later assessment by NAEP in 2005 revealed that males preferred Chemistrys subjects to females in grades 4, 8 and 12. Females at all levels made relatively little gains in their average Chemistry scores since 1996. In most cases by grade 11, the areas of largest male advantage were physics, chemistry, earth Chemistry and space Chemistry (Kahle and Meece, 1994). In the final year of secondary school, males had a significantly higher achievement in scientific literacy than females in all participating countries (European Union Report, 2009).

In Nigeria, in the SS1, are assessed at the end of  the ss3. The choice of which Chemistry subject to study in SS1-SS3 has been an issue to many of students; an issue that have since received varied interpretation among the students themselves and the various stakeholders in the education fraternity. Studies have revealed that most students will prefer chemistry and biology when allowed to choose Chemistry subjects (Waititu, 2004). Moreover, female student have been noted to shy away from physics and chemistry citing the reason being the tedious mathematical calculations involved in such subjects (Murithi, 1996)

Implementing Vision 2030 will require more knowledge based skills. This calls for more training in Chemistry and technological related courses. If secondary school graduates are not realizing the required grades in order to enroll in such courses, the vision remains just a mirage. There must therefore be concerted effort among all stakeholders to address the problem of deplorable choice and performance in Chemistry subject.




1.1    Background of the Study

Political parties are traditionally the most significant intermediary organization in democratic societies. Students of political parties have commonly associated them with democracy itself. Political parties, as “makers” of democracy, have been so romanticized that scholars claim that neither democracy nor democratic societies are thinkable without them. In other words, the existence of vibrant political parties is a sine qua non for democratic consolidation in any polity. It is patently ironic that political parties in Nigeria largely pursue (and profess) democracy outside the gates and resist it within the gates (Orji, 2013; Ibeanu, 2013).

Democratic governance with its ideal of elective representation, freedom of choice of leaders, rule of law, freedom of expression, accountability among others, has become the acceptable system of government all over the world. It is a form of government in which the supreme power of a political community rests on popular sovereignty. According to Oyovbaire (1987) democracy as a system of government seeks to realize a generally recognized common good through a collective initiation and discussion of policy questions concerning public affairs and which delegates authority to agents to implement the broad decisions made by the people through majority vote.

Accordingly, Osabiya (2015) further asserted that in modern societies, political parties are very essential to political process. They have become veritable instrument or adjunct of democracy in any democratic system. Political parties are not only instrument for capturing political power, but they are also vehicles for the aggregation of interests and ultimate satisfaction of such interests through the control of government. Obviously political parties are crucial to the sustenance of democratic governance.

Towards the end of the last century, Africa like the rest of the world witnessed the “third wave of democratization” when authoritarian regime and one party governments were replaced or supplanted by elected civilian governments or administrations. Nigeria described by Ette (2013) as one of the strongholds of dictatorship in the continent was caught in the snowballing effect of the wave after twenty-nine years of military dictatorship. After several years of failure attempt by the past military regimes of Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida and Sani Abacha, democracy formally gained root in the country on 29 May, 1999.

Nigerians were full of hopes and expectations that hard earned democracy will usher in improvements in standards of living, good governance, improvement in security and what Mohammed (2013:573 described as freeing of natural resources from the iron fist and jaw of greedy officials to that of enterprising and efficient social services delivery in health, education, sports and prevention of modern day slavery such as human trafficking as well as rehabilitation of infrastructural facilities, poverty alleviation and reduction in unemployment, inequality and improvement in general socio-economic development.

Disturbingly, eighteen years after the inception of the present democratic dispensation, the political landscape is yet to show clear evidence of good governance. Elections and electoral processes are subverted; there have been wide scale of political violence and killing in many parts of the country; upsurge in ethnic militia groups who make life unbearable for the citizenry; general insecurity and high profile terrorism in the northern part of the country as well as kidnapping and bunkering of the petroleum pipelines in the southern part of the country which obviously have become a major threat to her democratic process and consolidation (Adeosun, 2014:1).

The rudiments of a true democracy are good governance, fair and legitimate elections, justice, equity, accountability, transparency, responsible leadership, political education of the masses, respect for the rule of law and importantly corporation among the different branches of government. Regrettably, the practice of the so-called democracy in the 21st Century Nigeria is intrinsically characterized by electoral frauds orchestrated by political parties (Obidimma andObidimma, 2015:43).

Moreover, mainstream rhetoric in Nigeria media and popular discourses of the polity is often centred on the claim that Nigeria is “consolidating its democracy”. The evidence on the ground, however, contradicts this claim (Momoh, 2013:1). It is perhaps most appropriate to liken the relationship between political parties and the sustenance of democratic rule in a particular society to that which exists between the umbilical cord and the foetus (Yagboyaju, 2012:54).

Political parties are at the heart of examining the health of any form of democracy. Orji (2013:1) argues that ‘to talk, today, about consolidating democracy, is to talk about a system of competitive political parties’. Therefore this research study seeks to examine the role of political parties in consolidation of democracy in Nigeria with particular references to the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressive Congress (APC).

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Consolidating Nigerian democracy through the functioning of political parties has remained an albatross. The history of Nigeria’s democratic experiments demonstrates that elections and political parties have generated so much animosity which has, in some cases, threatened the corporate existence of the country, such as happened after the annulment of the June 12, 1993 presidential election and in other cases instigated military incursion in to political governance, most notably in 1966 and 1983. At the heart of electoral crisis in Nigeria is the lack of credibility for the official results of elections leading to the rejection of such results by the opposition political parties.

Since the inauguration of the Fourth Republic, a pattern is already emerging which points to the fact that political elites have not learnt much from the mistakes of the past. The various crises plaguing the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressive Congress (APC) in the annals of defections in the National Assembly, cross carpeting of governors, lack of internal democracy among others are vivid instances of this tendency. Lack of party discipline continues to feature prominently in the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressive Congress (APC) political parties. This action ends up heating up the polity; a situation that portends dangers to democratic consolidation in Nigeria. This danger has resulted to the high level of political abduction, harassment, arson, and assassinations, withdrawal of credible and qualified professionals in the race. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the role of political parties in consolidation of democracy in Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is to examine the relationship between political parties and democratic consolidation in Nigeria. Other specific objectives are:

1)  To examine the relationship between political parties and democratic consolidation in Nigeria.

2)  To examine the effect of intra-party crisis on the democratic process.

3)  To investigate the effect of party-members defections on democratic deepening in Nigeria.

4)  To interrogateif lack of internal democracy by the PDP and APC is affecting the sustenance of democracy in Nigeria.

5)  To extrapolatethe challenges of consolidating democracy in Nigeria.

1.5    Research Questions

The questions that this study seeks to address are:

1)  What is the relationship between political parties and democratic consolidation in Nigeria?

2)  In what ways do intra-party crisis have any effect on the democratic process in Nigeria?

3)  To what extent will party-members defection affect democratic deepening in Nigeria?

4)  To what extent doeslack of internal democracy by the PDP and APC affecting the sustenance of democracy in Nigeria?

5)  What are the challenges of consolidating democracy in Nigeria?

1.6   Significance of the Study

Previous researchers have been very divergent in their views about the possible correlates of political parties and democratic consolidation in Nigeria, this study will therefore be of great significance as it will add to the already existing body of knowledge in this regard. It is anticipated that the analytical, conceptual and theoretical analysis will not just contribute to understanding of the dynamics of political parties and democracy in Nigeria, but will articulate sound policy recommendations to foster democratic consolidation in Nigeria. In a whole, the outcomes of the study will serve as a useful tool for students of the Lagos State University, who would want to carry out further research in this domain. It would also be useful to scholars in political science. The study would in fact be significant to policy makers and implementers at large, as they will find the result and recommendations of the study very useful.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The scope of the study defines the research boundary. Therefore this study encompasses political parties and democratic consolidation in Nigeria vis-à-vis the inter-party crisis, party-members’ defection, lack of internal democracy and the challenges of democratic consolidation in Nigeria. The study will be limited in scope to thePeople’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressive Congress (APC).

Politics of Godfatherism and its Implication on Socio-Economic and Political Development of Nigeria


In contemporary democracy politics of godfatherism has become a universal issue in the political development of many countries Nigeria inclusive. The paper studied the implication of politics of godfatherism on the socio-economic and political development of Nigeria. Certainly, the politics of godfatherism have entered every hook and crannies of the nation and have affected the political structure of the country. This paper is qualitative in nature; data were obtained from secondary sources where numerous articles, newspapers, magazines, books reports, and archives were systematically reviewed. In elucidating the topic under examination, the researcher used Elite theory. This theory was advocated by Vilfredo Pareto in 1935, the postulation of the theory is that elites are replaced by another group of elites, meaning that the majority are unavoidably governed by the minority. The study found that the politics of godfatherism has a negative impact on the socio-economic and political development of the nation by confining power in the hands of the few elites at the expense of the masses (electorates). This has affected the socio-economic and political development of the nation, and by extension led to inter-party and intra-party defections, decamping�s and conflicts among the party members. Therefore, the study recommends the implementation of the direct primary election in the selecting candidate into elective positions. In addition to that, INEC should make a law that will discourage money politics and should as well punish the culprit involved in such an illegal political act.

Keywords: Development;God-Fatherism; Implication; Impacts; Nigeria; Political; Politics; Socio-Economic

1. Introduction

In Africa and other developing countries like Nigeria, godfatherism has become the central point of political vandalism this is as a result of the overconcentration of authority and capital of politicians explains the ascent for the control of the structures and organizations by the political class in the nation, this struggle, and the resulting values have obstructed significantly on society in a various ways (Ohiole & Ojo, 2016:1).

Politics of godfatherism and regionalism has featured prominently in the political history of independent Nigeria. The problems arising from godfatherism are myriad and it is one of the greatest glitches facing the Nigerian political system. The problem is such that the god-son oftentimes is a stooge of the godfather �and he that pays the piper dictates the tune (Edigin, 2010:174)�. The failure of the god-son to meet the demands of the god-father is often punished with impeachments or denial of re-election. He also observed that with the return to democratic rule in 1999, the country witnessed a heightened tempo in the politics of godfatherism, which has affected the socio-economic and political development of the country.

A study by Ohiole & Ojo (2016:11), disclosed that democracy in Nigeria has not been fully established and the phenomenon of godfatherism has endangered democratic process and the socio-economic lives of the citizenry. Political godfathers is a condition in Nigerian political process influencing against the democratic establishment in order to satisfy their selfish interest they are even ready to manipulate the democratic body and its mode of operations, by overpowering public office holders like the governor and council chairman to dance to their tone. The activities of these political fighters have deprived the people of voting for their ideal applicants as their leader. This has directly affected the political arrangement and the national economy of the nation.

However, Nigeria with a projected population of 196,651,048 and� one of the largest nation in Africa blessed with human and material resources, is by far the most populated nation in Africa (Ali, Zakuan, and Ahmad, 2018 & UNDESA, 2018). It has three tiers of government structure these include federal, state, and local government. With six geopolitical zones across the nation. Nigeria comprises 36 states and Abuja. It also has 774 local government, and federal capital territory (Ahmed & Shehu, 2014). With all these features yet Nigeria is characterizing with politics of godfatherism since independence this is as a result of the majority and minority domination and poverty that was artificially created by the politicians among the citizens to subjugate them to lower class. Political godfatherism in its simplest form can be generally seen as a practice which involves the sustenance of a kind of social and political relations in which the inferior looks onto the superior for the dissemination and self-actualization of firm roles, desires and connections which unite both together or in which both have equal pole but with the greater influence of what the inferior gets in the process (Majekodunmi, 2013:71).

Nigeria has all the below types of godfathers:

most especially those who serve others, those who expect the society to serve them, and even those who channel their resources into criminal activities. Our interest in this paper is on the politics of godfatherism in the democratic government (Albert, 2005:81).

Godfathers in some nations are inspired by their resolution to regulate public policies in favour of their concerns. For instance, in Nigeria, the primary motive of political godfathers is to control the treasury of the state. The godfathers in Nigerian politics are primarily concerned with appropriation of government contracts, political/public appointments and plundering the coffers of the state. They are in advantaged positions to decide the political confidence of candidates to political offices and as such those that are not only seen but confirmed to be �loyal� cannot be �given� ticket to be the flag bearer of the parties. This is to ensure that the godsons will be answerable to them when they were elected into power. Because of these conditions, some contenders defect to other parties where they do not have such influential figures that would aggravate them from their political ambitions (Okolie, 2006:171).

From the above expression, it is understood that democracy is a competition among the elite for control and entree to state power. However, it is contended here that in Nigeria the disaster of democracy can be traced to the failure of the political elite, as a class. Since 1954, there has been a fusion of the elite such that political elite also institutes both the economic and social elite. To be sure, the emergent political elite since 1954 have dominated the political territory to the exclusion of new candidates. The old elite has to controlled the political passage such that where they are not opposing for political positions, they desire to constitute themselves as the power behind the curtain, thereby, leading to the phenomenon of ‘godfatherism'(Uadiale, 2012:94).

Looking at the above set-up it is understood that politics of Godfatherism has eaten deep into Nigerian politics this corresponds with the opinion of Plato, Aristotle, Tacitus, and other classical philosophers who largely centered on the concentration of political power in the hands of a few in the early Greek and Roman society. Thinkers such as Pareto, Mosca, Michels, and Marx too devoted their political analysis on how power is used and misused by the ruling class in diverse settings. The domination of power by the hegemonic class in many parts of the contemporary society can thus, be said to be nothing new but has a vigorous pedigree (Albert, 2005:79).

1.1 Brief History of the Nigerian State and Democracy

The Nigerian state was established because of the defeat and occupation of Lagos by the British between 1861 and 1914. In the year 1861 and 1914, all areas around the Niger River were progressively apprehended, some by power and others quietly give to British domination and rule. These areas which shaped the Nigerian state were before the conquest and occupation of Lagos, and the January 1914 unification were different nationalities, ethno-religious and geopolitical groups which were either separate or independent of one another or to a less extent inter-related to one another. With the 1914 unification, these areas from the Northern and Southern regions of the Niger River were amalgamated together and made as one political entity called (Nigeria). From 1914 to 1960 Nigeria remained under the British colonial rule which in addition brought party politics and the western styled parliamentary democracy into Nigeria over the years of colonial rule (Ali & Isah, 2018:116).

In a related development a study by Isah and Ahmed (2018), disclosed that political activities in unified Nigeria began around 1922/23 when elections and a political party Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) was recognized and conducted. This political movement and parties in Nigeria continued to develop up to 1960 when Nigeria attains its independence. The post-independence era also witnessed an increased number of political events as well as growing number of political parties and politically related groups and associations which had by January 1966 before the coup reached 81 (Mohammed, Aisha & Saidu, 2018).

1.2 The Advent of Politics of Godfatherism in Nigeria

Politics of Godfatherism became widespread in Nigerian political movements in the 1960s, and early post-independence where leaders became political godfathers (Mamah, 2004). The action of political godfathers was obvious with the coming of civilian rule in 1979. However, the military governments that branded the 1980�s jammed its achievement. Similarly, a study by Alabi & Tunde (2013:6), pointed out that the political godfather phenomenon is not new in Nigeria politics. This circumstance started during the First Republic when the leading supporter of independence of Nigeria (Zik, Awo, Tafawa-Balewa, etc.) intolerant and managed political activities in Nigeria. However, there are lots of changes between the philosophical godfatherism of the First Republic and the unpolished form Citing (Gambo, 2007). Bernard drew the basis of godfatherism in electoral politics to the city of Chicago in the United States of America in the pre-world war II era, which he expressed that�when the heads of criminal gangs sponsored politicians in elections, manipulated the results to get them elected and, in turn, received protection and contracts from their political godsons (Bernard, 2009)�.

Moreover, the 1999 civil rule attended another form of political godfatherism, which reached its ultimate during the unpleasant obliteration of lives and belongings that viewed the violent hostility between the political godfather (Chris Uba) and the then governor of Anambra state (Chris Ngige). This act leads to a new dimension to the exercise of political godfatherism in the Nigerian political movements where the godson dance the tone of the godfather in order to accomplish his or her political dream. This is contrary to the roles played by godfathers in Nigeria�s democratic movements between 1958 and 1983 (Mamah, 2004).

2. Problem Statement

Politics of godfatherism has become part and parcel of the political condition of actualizing the political dreams of many contestants in Nigeria. Politics of godfatherism has eaten deep into the political movements of many nations Nigeria inclusive. Politics of godfatherism has affected the political and economic development of Nigeria. Several issues were observed as a cause of politics of Godfatherism. The central argument is that in the Nigerian politics �Godfatherism� has become the major problem to many candidates to win or fail in an election. Godfatherism is extensively practicing in all parts of the country, it is observed that to contest for any political post it has become necessary to have strong political godfather before considering and run for any elective offices or even political appointment. This is because many contenders cannot win an election without the support and influence of the godfather. So also, many individuals cannot get appointed without the support and influence of the godfathers that decide the faith of the state. But with the support and influence of godfathers, many aspirants contest and win the election. because of the power of the godfathers and incumbency.

The power, influence, and incumbency have created a serious problem between the contestants and the electorates, and by extension has affected the socio-economic development of the nation. This is because most of the candidates dance to the tone of their godfathers not the general populous. And it is the godfathers that are dictating the candidates what to do and not to do. This problem of the dictatorship of the political fathers has created a wide gap� between the contestants and the electorates. It is understood that all the positions won or appointed because of the influence of godfathers cannot yield positive development. Because the political godfathers asked contestants or appointee to sign a treaty to ensure that they agree with all the promises that they had entered with the godfathers. However, (Gideons, 2010; Ohiole & Ojo, 2016:2) noted that the contestant makes sure that all the money spends on he/she during the election were paid fully with interests. This led to a political crisis between the aspirants and the godfathers, by extension between the citizens in the states. This political crisis has created a wide vacuum between the godsons and the godfather. Based on this, the paper merit to examine the impacts of politics of godfatherism on the socio-economic and political development of Nigeria.

3. Objectives of the Research

�  To examine the implication of political godfathers on the socio-economic development of Nigeria.

�  To investigate the relationship between godfathers and godsons in political movements in Nigeria.

�  To proffer solutions to identified problems

4. Research Methodology

This paper is qualitative; here the researcher used a secondary source in obtaining appropriate and interrelated literature. Here several documents such as books, articles, magazines, and newspapers were referred. All the relevant literature accessed were thoroughly studied and reviewed for the purpose of this study (Creswell, 2009; Zaleha, 2018).

4.1 Research Design

Considering the nature of this study the researcher uses a case study approach in approaching the topic under examination. This is because the approach helps the researcher in understanding the phenomenon deeply. In addition to that, it also provides an in-depth understanding of a case or cases under inquiry. Case study approach helps in developing an in-depth explanation and examination of a case (s) (Creswell, 2009; Zaleha, 2018).��

5. Theoretical Framework

In explaining this paper there are several theories that can support the study, but for the purpose of this research, the researcher adopted Elite theory to explained and supports the topic under investigation.�

5.1 Elite Theory

The study used Elite theory in explaining the topic under examination. This theory was offered by Vilfredo Pareto in 1935 the supposition of the theory is that power is rotated among the elites, this means the elites are substituted by another group of elites, meaning that the masses are unavoidably ruled by the few elites at the expense of the masses (the electorates). It is understood that this idea was begun by Pareto and Mosca in 1935 the law of elite rotation, in line with the above assumption and to support the argument elite theory sees �elites� as players governing the state and national resources, and occupying key positions related to power networks (Yamokoski and Dubrow, 2008). Thus, the perception of elites is more carefully connected to the Weberian knowledge of power, understood as the competence of executing one�s will, even against the will of the general populous (Weber, 1922:696). However, it is understood that power can be accomplished through material and/or figurative resources. Subsequently, elites can simply be defined as those in control of capitals (Reis, 2005). This theory resided on how power is rotating among the elites in society. More so, the theory believes that power can only be shared among the elites at the expense of the masses.

6. Literature and Conceptualization of Godfatherism

Godfatherism is an impediment to Nigerian democracy. It is adversative to the freedom and welfare of the peoples. Therefore, the problem of godfatherism should then not be preserved as a party affair but should be treated with legal action by the government and the party stakeholders. To gain control over the state structure, politics of Godfatherism need to be tackle and control, this is because, with the politics of Godfatherism, godfathers often adopt different systems to outmaneuver their oppositions. Therefore, it is observed that in Nigeria, several approaches were used to win elections such as rigging, thuggery, violence, and manipulations of results in the interest of the godfathers (Wenibowei, 2011:72).

The term Godfatherism have been defined by several scholars based on their perception and understanding. In a study by Adeoye (2009:70-1), the term used to define the connection between a godfather and godson. A godfather is a kingmaker, boss, mentor, and principal, while godson is the beneficiary and recipient of the legacy of a godfather. A godfather is someone who has built unbelievable respect and follower (voters) in the community and possessed a well-organized political stand, and general acceptance from an electorate that could secure victory for candidates of his choice (Adeoye, 2009:72).

In a related view Jibrin Ibrahim defined the category of godfatherism, during an interview granted to the BBC on 10 November 2003 as �men who have the power personally to determine who gets nominated and who wins the election in a state�. For instance, Governor Chimaroke Nnamani of Enugu, who had a running battle with his godfather, Senator Jim Nwobo, for over two years, defined godfather from his own personal experience as follows: The ‘political godfathers’ in Nigeria build a collection of supporters around them and use their power, which is often tied to financial deliberations, to operate the rest of the society toward his or her interest. Political godfathers use their power and influence to block the involvement of the masses from Nigerian politics. The elite theory explained the above situation that power is rotating between the elites and subjugating the masses to subordinate positions. This signifies that the elites and the politicians are political porters: They decide who is to take part in the national politics and under what situations (Albert, 2005:80).

Politics of Godfatherism is one of the philosophies that open tinny doors when it comes to defining who gets what in the political division. Though, in the framework of this study, the literary meaning and characteristics of godfather need to be emphasized. Literarily, Godfathers in the Nigeria context refers to the men who have the power generally to regulate both who gets selected to the election race to wins the election (Alabi & Tunde, 2013:5).

In another development, a study by Edigin (2010:175), describes or sees godfather as a human being who plays god to his people. He provides their basic needs for them, protects them and assists them to secure and achieve their objectives. He further states that �his support could be seen as an investment, which he believes must yield some profits in the near future�.

Therefore, the demand for sustainable democracy in Nigeria is to expand both the political and socio-economic situation of the country through massive people participation in the policy and decision-making process, but contrary to Nigerian political system where those that reached political power in both arms of government Legislative and Executive were elected to power through the influence and support of some political �godfathers� in many states. Nevertheless, the yearning of political godfathers is to hold political and socio-economic powers, both at the center and the local units as strategies to administratively influence the activities of political office holders. Such as the Governors and Legislators in terms of employing people into numerous posts, such as Ministers/Commissioners, Chairmen of the boards, Secretaries to the various Institutions, DPM and Treasurers of Local Governments as well as allocation of some developmental projects into various local government of interest across the state (Alabi & Tunde, 2013:2-3). This is in line with the summation of Elite theory which buttressed that political power is shared among the political elites at the expense of the masses (electorates).�

To explain the above assertions Albert (2005:81), noted that an important issue raised by Pareto and Marx in their works is that political elites insulate and isolate themselves from their society and try as much as possible to reproduce themselves from within. They do all possible within their reach to ensure that non-elites do not join their membership. This is in line with the postulation of the Elite theory, which believes that power is rotating among the elites by sidelining the masses to subordinate or to fallowers positions. To ensure this, the political elites maintain a safe, functional distance from the rest of society. They reproduce themselves on an individual and selective basis in a process which Pareto specifically referred to as the ‘circulation of elites’.

In a related development, a study by Alabi & Tunde (2013), disclosed that most Nigerian policies are usually determined by political godfathers to allow them to fix in their contenders to the corridor of power. In the recent time, Politics of Godfatherism has extended to upper, lower and state house of assembly, where all the contenders most have an influential godfather that would back him/her before winning an election. This signifies that political godfathers are the key to political success in Nigeria polity.

7. Politics of Godfatherism in Nigeria

Politics of godfatherism courses a lot of problems in the political movements of many states. These problems include intraparty and interparty conflict, party defection or party decamping. However, these conflicts arising from godfatherism has become one of the major problems affecting the political arrangement of many nations Nigeria inclusive.

For instance, politics of godfatherism become widespread in the Nigerian political system from 1999 to date, when those in power became the political godfathers in states politics. The deed of godfathers was noticeable in the state in 2007 when late governor Mamman B. Ali of the blessing memory came out to vie for the post of the governorship in the state, only a few politicians were in support of his intention to contest for the post. Most of the political leaders and the party stakeholders were not in his support. This is because he has no political godfather that will support him to vie for the post, but he keeps on struggling in actualizing his political dream to become the governor of the state in 2007. However, Late Senator M. B. Ali scored a major victory at the Supreme Court. The victory was in respect of a case brought by late Senator U. Al-Bashir disputing the replacement of his name with that of late Ali as an aspirant of the All Nigerian Peoples Party (ANPP) for the 2007 governorship election (Com, 2018).

In a similar opinion a study by Albert (2005:81), pointed out that: �men who have the power personally to determine who gets nominated who in the state�. Governor Chimaroke Nnamani of Enugu, who had a running battle with his godfather, Senator Jim Nwobo, for over two years, defined godfather from his own personal experience as follows:

an impervious guardian figure who provided the lifeline and direction to the godson, perceived to live a life of total submission, subservience, and protection of the oracular personality located in the large, material frame of opulence, affluence and decisiveness, that is, if not ruthless … strictly, the godfather is simply a self-seeking individual out there to use the government for his own purposes.

In line with the above assertion a study by Ohiole & Ojo (2016:6), unveiled that the battle line in Oyo State was drawn between Lamidi ADEDIBU � the kingpin of Ibadan Politics (godfather) and the (godson) governor of the State, Rashidi LADOJA. Adedibu demanded to have donated financially in �installing� LADOJA as the state governor, with an arrangement that the governor will be faithful and obedient, taking orders from him and to subject public resources, to his private impulses and whims.

Nevertheless, LADOJA defaulted and declined to play according to the rules of the game. This led to confusion in Ibadan the state capital. After the 2003 general elections till January 2006. Because of this confusion, many lives and properties were lost. The State House of Assembly was also divided into two and this led to the suspension of fourteen (14) members out of thirty-two (32) � members State House of Assembly. Then, LADOJA was arraigned in less than 30 minutes in January 2006, this gave the opportunity for the deputy governor, Alao AKALA, another godfather who is willing to serve the godfather well. This position was sustained up to December 7th, 2006. It was after eleven-month Supreme Court ruled out the case in favour of the governor, that his removal was illegitimate, and he was returned after eleven (11) months out of his office. His coming back to the office was confronted with the grave fight from his former godfather�s (ADEDIBU) camp, which led to break in law and order of the State capital for few days and living many blameless inhabitants with various kind of injuries (Azeez, 2014; Ohiole & Ojo, 2016)

In a similar view Sale (2018), disclosed that same thing applies to Yobe North senatorial district where the ruling party has fielded the longest-serving senator in the state, Senator Ahmed Lawan, the current Senate leader. Political analysts in and around the state posited that Adamu Maina Waziri has contributed immensely in making PDP in Yobe State weak. They said since the inception of democratic rule in 1999, Waziri has been the sole gubernatorial flag bearer of the party and has never for once won election or allow somebody to make any move to contest. He is being accused of pocketing the party and tilting it to where it will serve his personal interest. Some party faithful in the state went to the extent of accusing him of working for the ruling APC. Presently, there are serious political crises between the present Senator and Waziri. Based on the political analysis if this internal party wrangling between A. Waziri and M. Hassan, if not amicably addressed before the coming general elections, it will no doubt lead to PDP losing the seat to APC, and if this happens, APC will be happy, because Zone� B is the only Zone� among the three senatorial Zones that is being represented by PDP (Sale, 2018). To minimized this problem of godfatherism the study suggested for the direct primary election in the country.

8. Direct Primary Election

In order to minimize the problems of godfatherism and uphold free fair and credible election in Nigeria the paper suggested for the proper adoption of direct primary election. This is in line with the declaration of APC National Chairman in 2018, and in preparation of 2019 general election. According to (Oladesu, 2018; Ojeifo, 2018) the APC national chairmen declare the implementation of direct primary elections in the APC across the 36 of the federation this is to overcome the problem of godson and godfather domination in the APC political movements. He believes this method of the direct primary election would help in electing the right aspirant for 2019 general elections. This idea arose in a leadership meeting with the party caucus in Abuja. Comrade Adams Oshiomhole-led National Executive Committee, he declared that all the contested would be elected through the direct primary election this is to ensure equality and justice to all contestants and to sustain free, fair and credible election. This decision was not in any way vague.

In line with the opinion of APC chairman, the president supported the implementation of the direct primary election for all APC candidates across the federation (Oladesu, 2018). The chairman clarified the acceptance of the direct primary election which would give all registered members of the party the chance to take part in the process of defining those to represent the right and interest of the party members at all level of governance. This basically describes the distinctive democratic style (Ojeifo, 2018).

The national chairman highlighted that:

We note that direct primary election is free from the vices associated with the indirect primary. Direct primary cannot be wrought. It is not disposed to corruption, we want to grow democracy. We want the party members to have ownership of the party. We want to give our members a sense of belonging (Oladesu, 2018:1-2).

The All Progressives Congress (APC) was requested to adopt the direct primary for the selection of its candidates for 2019 general elections to enhance inner democracy, the Chairman emphasized. He explained that he suggested for the implementation of the direct primary election in order to �liberalize� its shadow polls by making all registered APC members automatic delegates. He added that this option will lessen the corruption and manipulation related to the delegates mode of selecting the contestants, which always causes huge post-primary violence and crises in the nation (Oladesu, 2018). To him, the implementation of a direct primary election helps in no small measure in minimizing the power of incumbency in the political movements of Nigeria. This would encourage the general populaces who are willing and interesting to participate and contest for any political position of their choice. This assertion is measured by Elites theory that power is rotating among the Elites at the expense of the electorates.

To curtail the problem of godfatherism all the political parties should adopt and implement these policies of the direct primary election, this would help in sanitizing the election process at all level of government. It would as well lead to free fair and credible election by electing credible candidates in electives positions. Although, some states across the nation didn�t adopt the direct primary election. This is because of power incumbency and interest to manipulate the political power to a certain geopolitical Zone� that has been dominating the state politics for many years (Sale, 2018). Politics of Godfatherism has become part and parcel of Nigerian politics. Looking at the structure of the National and State House of Assembly it is noted that most of the members have dominated the position since 1999, some have inherited the post and sustain it for many years because of the influence and the power of Godfatherism that has denied the masses from contesting for the posts. This is the true picture of the Elite theory that believes in power circulation among the elite in society (Yamokoski and Dubrow, 2008).

9. The Causes of Politics of GodFatherism in Nigeria

The study found that there are numerous factors that lead to the politics of godfatherism in Nigeria. Among which are: the power of incumbency, influence, money, political thugs, money politics, lack of political awareness, selfishness, greediness, lack of exposure, over-ambition, nepotism, and politics of regionalism among others. There is an emerging tendency in Nigeria which labels that an anticipating contender must have and depend on the godfather with the necessary capital, influence, and power to get he/she voted and acquire power. The consequence is that participants are more depending on their acceptance from the electorates, but on their selected godfathers to support them secure elected positions (Aderonke, Awosika & Olanrewaju, 2013:70).

In the same way, it is understood that corruptive tendencies intensify the economic base of the godfathers by making a wide diversity of difficulties in the politics and rule because the godfathers use their influence, capital to place their godsons and wards in several positions of power. So also those in power use their position to decide the next to represent the interest of the citizens at all cost (Oviasuyi, 2009:73)

A study by (Ohiole & Ojo, 2016:4) noted that election sponsors are rich, powerful and influential individuals which come out freely to pay kindly towards the voting success of a party or sponsor candidates during an election. More so, Ohiole & Ojo (2016), added that the political godfather might be less concerned about the active politics or organization of r�gime but thinks of approachable policies from the administration. �Nigeria�s godfathers in the 21st century sponsors election, but not all election sponsors are godfathers�. Though, Godfathers reign across all spheres of the society: academics, legal, and religious environment.

To support the above statement, Popoola, (2014:1-2), unveiled that political godfather and godson fight has been upsetting the nation socio-economic development. This fight rooted in the crash of interest, needs, values, and capitals, involved political office holders in the highest ladder of government.Which invariably affects the socio-economic and political development of the nation.

Challenges faced by the local private security guards in Nigeria Community A study of Ebonyi State


Community policing is an effort between the security agents and the community that identifies and solves community problems such as insecurity issues. This paper thus discusses the challenges facing the local private security guards toward enhancing community policing. The study found that poor working conditions, poor pay, lack of recognition from the public, inadequate working facilities, and poor communication channels were among the major challenges facing private guards in Ebonyi. The study recommends that there is need for improving working conditions as well as communication.





This study examined the effectiveness of monetary policy and control of inflation in Nigeria. The study adopted Augmented Dickey – Fuller (ADF), Johansen Co-integration and Error Correction Model (ECM) to evaluate the effect of money supply, interest rate and exchange rate on inflation rate in Nigeria. The results of the unit root test revealed that Inflation Rate, Money Supply, Exchange Rate and Interest were stationary at first difference while the result of the Johansen Co-integration Test revealed there is long run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The result of the Error Correction Model revealed that both Money Supply and Interest Rate are statistically significant in explaining variation in Inflation Rate while Exchange Rate is insignificant in explaining variation in Inflation Rate. It was however concluded that monetary policy has been partially effective in controlling in inflation rate in Nigeria. The study recommended that monetary authority should adopt adequate indirect instruments for the purpose of controlling the volume of money in circulation for effective and efficient control of inflation rate in Nigeria. Interest rate in Nigeria should be totally liberalized for the purpose of making it a strong monetary policy instrument of regulating price level and economic activities. The money market and its instruments should be adequately developed for the purpose of making it an effective control mechanism for inflation in Nigeria. A robust and effective exchange rate regime should be adopted by regulatory authorities in order to ensure exchange rate stability capable of controlling inflationary pressure in the economy




Long essays, Research Project, Final year project, Final year Thesis, and other academic papers are important elements towards getting an higher institutions certificate of learning in Nigeria.
A research project is a quest into the unknown. It is the act of finding a rational explanation or clarification on facts, events and phenomenon which surrounds human existence.

Research projects takes place in every day of our lives, be it in the formal or informal settings. Literary meaning of the word research refers to an inquiry, which invariably implies that whenever one engages in the process of an inquiry such a person is already making a research, we often embark on research in order to gain clarification on facts and phenomenal which are unknown or not vivid.

Scientific research which is the emphasis of this article differs from mere inquiries in the sense that it deals with the identification of a problem, statement of a problem, formulation of hypothesis, collection, interpreting/analysing of data and formulation or drawing of necessary inference or conclusion(s).

This academic level/requirement from the university is very crucial in moulding a graduate who will be grounded both in theory and practice. It exposes students to research approaches and practical application of theories in solving real life situations.

However these particular aspect of the university requirement tend to pose a lot of constraints and bottleneck to most tertiary institution students partly, as a result of lack of understanding and in depth knowledge of what research really entails and negligence on the part of the students.

This article will do justice to what research stands for, and things to look out for in writing a good research project.

Choosing a Research/ Project Topic

The first stage is choosing project topics, it is worth noting that the success of a good research is partly dependent on the topic.
This is so because if the topic is not balanced or well phrased, it becomes difficult for the young researcher to grasp the meaning or the message his/her topic is trying to pass.

Secondly, if the topic is not in line with the young researcher’s area of interest, for instant project topic imposed on the researcher by his/her supervisor, it could be a constraint because passion and interest is a driving force in every school project research work.

On the other hand if the topic is not in line with the young researchers supervisor’s interest it also presents a myriad of problem. Hence care should be taken in order not to start off your research on a wrong foot with your supervisor.

  1. Choose a research topic which aligns with your research interest
  2. Choose a research topic which aligns with your supervisor’s interest so as to facilitate a good supervisor-supervisee relationship. Note that if your research interest are not in line with that of your supervisor’s interest, it could take you longer time to finish as the needed attention will not be paid to it.Look for a way to blend into that of your supervisor because your supervisor have a big role to play in the whole process of the research.
  3. Ensure that your topic is researchable: Not every research topic is researchable. To know if your topic is researchable look up the keywords in your topic on the internet, this enables you to ascertain the available literatures and the extent other researchers have done in your area of research or alternatively other offline documents cum documentaries that will be of help in the course of the study. Remember, it is called RE-SEARCH which can consequently (if well planned) lead to new knowledge and INVENTION and not necessarily INNOVATION.
  4. Choose a research topic which would be relevant to the society: identify a problem in your locality and then try fill it. If for instance in your locality there is a high prevalence of unwanted pregnancy, your research topic should be geared towards ascertaining the causes and remedies to the problem in line with your course of study.
  5. Critically look at your topic and plan the end from the beginning. What this entail is that you should know the possible structure of your research work, the methodology to be adopted (if it is one you can handle) and then plan a way of getting it done. For instance, not every research work need survey research design that needs interview, questionnaire et cetera.
  6. Also, you should determine the kind of data your research work need. Most project topics in Economics need secondary data while most project/research topics in Education need primary data. All these can be ascertained from your topic.
  7. Try to know the dependent and the independent variables in your topic as this will help you in developing your research objectives.

Ways of Formulating a Project Topic

1. Identifying a problem within your vicinity. E.g.

Starting Your Research Writing

Having selected a suitable project topic, don’t be in a hurry to start writing your research project:
Source, download articles, journals and literatures which are relevant and closely related to your study.

Read them very well

Get an already completed research work from your department, you can borrow it from your departmental library and study it.The essence of this is for you to know and understand the format your department is using.
Use the “borrowed” already completed work as a guide, and please do not copy from it, because when you do so, you are no longer conducting a research rather you are just copying words from one book to another which results to plagiarism.

When you have read a lot of literatures then you can start your research work.
Complete Guide on research project writing and graduation thesis – How to use the search engine in research project writing.

“How To Get Project Topics and Material in Nigeria” is brought to you by SCHOOL PROJECT TOPICS in conjunction with Project Store and project topics

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Antibiotics susceptibility profile of bacterial isolate from fish pond effluent

Antibiotics susceptibility profile of bacterial isolate from fish pond effluent


Fish farming is a recognized means of livelihood in Nigeria; however, the intensive use of antibiotics to prevent infection and increase fish yield calls for concern. This practice may lead to the growth of antibiotics resistant bacteria which contains resistant genes that can be transferred to human pathogens, causing treatment‐ resistant illness. This study investigated the antibiotics susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from five fish ponds in Benin City using standard microbiological procedures. Isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and conventional biochemical tests, while antibiotic susceptibility test was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results showed that total aerobic count of the ponds ranges from minimum 7.85 x 104 cfu/ml recorded in Ekewan fish pond to maximum 135.06 x 104 cfu/ml recorded in Sapele Road fish pond. Bacteria species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp and Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp and E. coli. Frequency of occurrence and percentage distribution of the isolates showed that Bacillus spp had the highest while Klebsiella spp had the lowest. Community fish pond recorded the highest number of isolates while Adesuwa fish pond recorded the lowest number of isolates. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns showed that majority of the isolates were resistant to perfloxacin (85.18%) and amoxicillin (74.81%). It is suggested that the prophylactic and indiscriminate use of antibiotics may be a predisposing factor in the development of antibiotics resistance among the bacteria isolates. This may pose a threat to human population by transferring these resistant genes to other bacteria of human clinical significance.

On Equal Predictive Ability and Parallelism of Self-Exciting Threshold Autoregressive Model


Several authors have developed statistical procedures for testing whether two models are similar. In this work, we not only present the notion of equivalence but also extend this to a measure of predictive ability of a time series following a stationary self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) process. A proposition and a lemma were used to join the structure of the predictability measure to the coefficients and sample autocorrelation of the SETAR process. Illustrative examples are given to show how to conduct the test which can help practitioners avoid mistakes in decision making.

Level of Use and Effectiveness of some Select Method of Teaching Economics in Secondary Schools



It is commonly accepted that most effective way to increase student interest in economics is by applying economics analysis to issues that students find particularly relevant in life.

One needs only to observe the relative scarcity of literature pertaining to the interdisciplinary teaching of economics to conclude that such an approach is not common. However, there are several papers that illustrate innovational materials from other disciplines.

Watts (2002) and Smith (1989) explain how literature and drama can be utilized in the teaching of economic.

Adejumobi(2000), state that “without adequate method, a clear set of objects and carefully arranged content likely to fail to produce satisfactory result on the parts of the students. This tends to be so,since method are the means by which the learners are kept inspired in the teaching activities, which result in learning.

The level of use and effectiveness of some methods of teaching economic in secondary schools established the fact that, develop reasoning of collecting content with consideration of age of student, level and intellectual skill development of the learners, availability of resource materials that are suitable, relevant and appropriate for effective teaching and progressive adequate learning exercise.

Teaching method occupied a paramount position in the teaching/learning situation. It serves as a communication link between the teacher, the students and the subject matter (Obaje, 2008). The subject matter is most important and vital in any teaching subject, the following need to be considered;

A. Teacher method is integral part of the school curriculum; the teacher needs to know the effective method to communicate with the students in order to achieve the set objectives by the National Policy on Education.

B. The methodology of a teacher invariably determines the success or failure of the lesson.

Method are of different types depending on the topic the teacher want to teach in order to aid effective teaching learning process and to achieve the objective of teaching.

In other word, For the purpose of this research work the following methods will be considered:

1. Problem solving method
2. Discussion method
3. Demonstration method
4. Role playing method
5. Oral exposition/lecture method
6. Discovery method
7. Case study method

In planning for an effective lesson with the aim of using an effective method or technique, the teacher should understand the basic fact that most suitable technique must be adopted alongside with the method of teaching in order to boost the effectiveness of the real method applied from the commencement of the lesson. The teacher should acknowledge the fact that there are some dimensions that tend to make a particular method effective thus:

i. One – Dimension of teaching
ii. Two – Dimension of teaching
iii. Three – Dimension or Multi – Dimension of teaching

One Dimension of teaching emphasizes the use of on particular method in teaching economics.

These methods depend solely on the topic at hand but, not always suitable to all aspects of topic in economics. Hence, the nature of topic is what prompts the use of the dimension.

Two Dimension of teaching emphasizes the fact that another method will be adopted in correlation to the teaching method in order to raise the effectiveness of the real method applied from the commencement of the lesson.

Three Dimension or Multi-Dimension of teaching tends to neglect the fact that a particular lesson will be tough effectively more than one or two method of teaching in used. This particular dimension is the appropriate to enable the effectiveness of the teaching learning process in economics.


According to Kidzu Thomas Oweh, teacher has the greatest potential to influence the student’s education, while a student achievement is related to teacher’s competence in using different methods of teaching. Thus, students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching procedures that make teaching and learning processes easier. In other words, excellent academic performance by students is not only attainable but could also be sustained through teacher method of teaching.

These study therefore, examine the level of use and effectiveness of some selected methods of teaching economics in Lagos state secondary schools, specifically how teacher’s effectiveness would bring about excellent academic performance through appropriate use of method of teaching.


The purpose of these research works are stated below:

i. To ascertain how learner attitude affect the method of teaching the students.
ii. To identify the teaching methods, their academic performance and the factors affecting the students.
iii. To evaluate the effects of method of teaching economics on the performance of students.
iv. To examine the teacher methods of teaching and their qualification.
v. To know the relationship between teacher methods and learning experience.
vi. To establish relationship between teacher’s methods of teaching economics and learner academics achievement.


The following are the research questions develop to examine the level of use and effectiveness of some selected methods of teaching economics in senior secondary schools;

i. Do teachers have knowledge of basic principles of using methods of teaching economics?
ii. Do student have negative or positive attitude towards the method of teaching adopted by their teachers?
iii. Is there any significant different between methods of teaching and teacher qualification?
iv. Is there any significant different between learning economics and teachers experience?
v. What is the relationship between teacher’s methods of teaching economics and learner academic achievement?


In order to verify and make valid conclusion base on the empirical investigation, the following hypothesis has been were tested:

1. There is no significance difference between methods of teaching economics and learners’ knowledge neglect.
2. There is no significance difference between attitudinal development of learner and the method of teaching economics.
3. There is no significance difference between the evaluation of learners’ attitude of learning and their academic performance.


The scope of the study will be limited to Surulere Local Government of Lagos state in some selected schools.

This is due to difficulty encountered in the process of covering the whole Lagos as such as time, financial and other factors beyond the control of the researcher.


ECONOMICS: According to Pigondefine economics in terms of welfare thereby stressing the human as well as the material aspect of the subject, regarding it as; A means of studying how total production could be increased so that the standard of living of people might be improved.

Adam Smith, who is being referred to as the father of economics considered economics as, an inquiry into nature and causes of the wealth of Nations.

METHODS: Refer to a way of doing things or an approach adopted or a position adopted to explain a subject – matter to a group of learners.

SELECT: According to Oxford Advanced Dictionary defined select: as choose thing carefully or especial as being the best or most suitable.



This chapter focuses on the viewpoints, opinions and recommendation expressed by some educationist, curriculum planners, education administrators, professional economists and authors. It focuses on the review of the relevant literature of the topic at hand and to make research on the areas which one understand the selected method of teaching in relation to the academic performance in economics.

– Teaching methods
– Types of methods teaching
– Factors to consider when selecting method teaching
– Factors to consider by economic teacher
– Relationship between economics another social sciences
– How to organize an economic subject
– Concept and classroom teaching of economics
– Stages of teaching
– Factors affecting attitude
– Nature of economics as it affect the attitudinal development of learners
– Availability of relevant materials
– Attitude in relation to academic performance
– Summary


A method refers to a way of doing things or an approach adopted or a position adopted to explain a subject – matter to a group of learners.

A method of teaching is the plan or mean employed by the teacher to effectively impart or explain the subjects – matter to his pupils/students.

The variety of teaching methods is almost limitless; it may be help to think in terms of categories of method. For example:

A. Teaching – centered approach to teaching: Within this category such methods as lecture, storytelling, and demonstration would be included.
This approach lends themselves to large groups, coverage of much content, and groups of learners who have minimal preparation for the class time. It is easier to use, teachers with less training and experience tend towards this category.
B. Student–centered approach: This is a two-way-communication approach between teacher and student in the mutual quest for truth. The question and answer and discussion methods are typical examples of this approach.
Successful two-way teaching is dependent upon effective preparation by both teacher and student.
C. Group activities represent yet a different kind of teaching method which involved; debates, group discussion and all forms of drama could be included here.
D. Instructive play as a method category. They include various kinds of games and toys, use of a sand table, puppet, puzzles and contests, action songs and simple role-playing.
E. Final category consists of such method as field trips, guided research, and various kinds of projects.

The teacher who wishes to be really effective will be sure that his teaching is characterized by variety. The teacher must try and familiar with these variety which implies that the use of lesson plans and keep records that enable him to compare various teaching strategies.

The method described in this section are not new, they are presented here so that teachers can recognize the strengths and limitations of each, and some principles for their affective use.


a. Problem solving or inquiry method
b. Discussion method
c. Demonstration method
d. Role playing method
e. Oral exposition lecture method
f. Discovery method
g. Case study method


This method encourages pupils or students to probe into a problem in order to find out why such problems exist and the solution to such problem. Problem solving method also called inquiry methods, inquiry method of teaching economies provides an opportunity for the students to identify and clarify a purpose for inquiry.

In teaching economics, problem solving method is used to involve students in activities of investigation, collection and the understanding of information or data.

In problem-solving approach, the students is not primarily asked to write a discursive essay or recall definitions but to resolve problem that will yield an answer only if concepts particular to economics are carefully use.


According to Dubey and Barth (2002), there are six steps involved in inquiry, there are:

1. Experience
2. State of uncertainty and doubt
3. Framing of the problem
4. Formulating hypothesis
5. Exploration and evidencing
6. Generalization


1. It increases intellectual ability of the pupils.
2. It motivates pupils/students to learn.
3. It helps to develop confidence in students and teachers.
4. It teaches skills, values, appreciation, attitude and knowledge that will make students more thoughtful about their environment.


1. It is time consuming.
2. It requires the guidance of a well-trained teacher.
3. It is limited to the activities, which students have skill and ability to investigate due to their ages and experiences.
4. It requires funds and materials.


Discussion methods are effective in getting the learners to think constructively while interacting with the rest of the group. Conduct discussions with large or small groups of students, however, small groups are more desirable to control and direct than larger group. If a group is extremely large, break it into smaller groups or teams with a discussion leader for each team.

The use of the terms class discussion and directed discussion in the text refer to a method in which you direct and control the verbal exchange of the class.

Basic to a good discussion is a problem which is clearly defined. The problem must be limited in scope so that it can be understood by members of the group and satisfactorily dealt with in the allotted time.

The teacher go extra miles to prepare for discussion class, although the learners supply the ideas meanwhile, the teacher must have a thorough knowledge of the subject matter to be able to sift out pertinent ideas. Teacher must beware of ideas that may lead the learners off on a tangent.

Teacher and student are engaged in a cooperative effort to seek information or solution to a problem in the classroom.

Values of the Discussion Method

i. Teaching by discussion utilizes one of the best principles of the learning process. A good discussion will help students express themselves verbally, crystallize their thinking in conjunction with the thinking of their peers and develop a tolerance for those with whom they may disagree.
ii. People who tend to isolate themselves physically or mentally will become set in their way and resist innovation in their lives or thought patterns.
iii. Teaching by discussion is a motivational technique which encourages a student to think through concepts which have been hazy. Wrong conclusion may be corrected through the influence of the group rather than the unilateral actions of the teacher.
iv. A discussion setting also provides an atmosphere which can enhance group rapport and camaraderie in the class.

Whole Group Discussion as a Teaching Method

Whole Group Discussion is a modified from of classroom lecture where the focus is shared between the teacher and the students for information transfer. Typically, a teacher will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn but the students will also participate by answering questions and providing example.

Advantages of Whole Group Discussion as a Teaching Method

i. Whole group discussions provide for greater interaction between teacher and students.
ii. Teachers maintain a greater control over what is being taught because they are able to steer the discussion.
iii. Auditory learners find them appealing to their learning style
iv. Students have a tendency to stay focused on the lesson because they might be called on to answer question

Disadvantages of Whole Group Discussion as a Teaching Method

i. Whole group discussions require setting up and enforcing ground rules for students.
ii. Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from group discussion.
iii. It required much amount of time to cover any given amount of materials.
iv. Some teachers feel safer with the lecture method


To keep discussion focused, you might initially pose several key questions. If the group is large, some participants will likely dominate while others remain silent. To ensure that everyone has the opportunity to speak, you may want to divide participants into smaller units. When any discussion concludes, summarize the main points orally and in writing.

i. Small Groups: Size will depend on time and the sensitivity or complexity of the subject. In most cases each group selects a reporter to summarize its discussion.
ii. Buzz Groups: Participants discuss in pars for a limited period. This method is especially effective for articulating idea in preparation for a general discussion or to give expression to personal response to a film, presentation, or experience, after talking in pars, pairs might be asked to combine in groups of four and compare their opinions
iii. Opens Questioning: Facilitators need to develop the skills of keeping the goal of discussion clearly, in mind and of asking questions that encourage participation and analysis.


This method is one of the best ways of introducing various skills to learners in class. Sometime there are limitations to what oral explanation or reading up volumes or lecture can achieve.

Demonstration method involved their skill to explained are performed. Demonstrate stop-by-step the procedures in a job task using exact physical procedure if possible.

To be effective, plan the demonstration method in advance so that you will be sure to show the steps in the proper sequence and to include all steps.

There is need to used enlarge devices or training aids when using large group or class in demonstration method when practical, allow learners to repeat the procedure in a ‘hands’ practice session to reinforce the learning process.

This method is used in some skill oriented subjects such as Home Economics, fine and Applied Arts, Technical Education, Typing.


i. The basic method of instruction for teaching skill-type subject matter is the demonstration – performance method of instruction. This method is recommended for teaching a skill because it covers all the necessary steps in an effective learning order.
ii. The demonstration step gives learners the opportunity to see and hear the details include the necessary background knowledge, the steps or procedure, the nomenclature
iii. The repetition step helps the average and slow learners and gives the learners an additional opportunity to see and hear the skill being taught.

As a general rule, the more complex the skill, the greater the need for repetition steps. Another element you must consider is the nature of the skill. In some skills, speed is an essential element. In other skills, ease of manipulation, conservation of materials, or safety is the essential element.

Consider the ability of the learners to acquire the skill and the amount of time available for training.

Using the following repetition steps:

(a) Teacher Repetition: Repeat the job without noticeable interruptions, restating the procedures and the important safety factors while performing the steps.
(b) Learner Repetition: Ask a learner to act as an assistant teacher by repeating the job and restating the procedure and the important safety factors while performing each step.
(c) Group Performance Repetition: Repeat the job slowly, one step at a time, while the learners watch and imitate your actions, one step at a time.
(d) Coach-and-Pupil Repetition: Divide learners into small groups. If a group consists of two learners, one (as a pupils) performs the job while the other as the coach)
(e) Performance Step: Acquaint the learners with the activity will complete when using a skill. Then organize the learners into working groups, supervise their practice of their practice of the skills involved, re-teach the skills, and evaluate and record the results.

Advantages of Performance Step

i. Mastery of skills is ensuring because learners practice regularly.
ii. It enable the teacher to have immediate feedback with which she/he can diagnose the teaching learning situation
iii. It eradicates trial and errors, thereby reducing cost

Disadvantages of Performance Step

It requires a lot of preparation on the part of the teacher.

Some skills require perfection especially on the teacher, and failure to attain this perfection may result in detraction.

It is limited by the learner’s capacity and capabilities; in terms of readiness, intelligence and motivation


This is the method which involves playing the role of a reality. It is one of the methods mostly used in economics. This is otherwise called demonstrated method.

According to Oyekan(2005) demonstration is a way of clearly showing the basic processes as true of life without difficulty in front of the class. This could be done by the teacher or resource person to enable the student to see, acquire and practice the exhibited skills and habits.

When there is scarcity of funds to procure equipment and chemical, demonstration is more appropriate for the students to secure first hand experiences (Oyekan, 2005).

It is also possible to create a role play by providing data about economic conditions such as balance of payment, level of employment, Investment, Consumption. Students may be asked to put themselves in the position of a Minister of Economic Planning and faced with a particular decision.


1. It saves cost and time.
2. It make even or situation real to life.
3. It ensures effective teaching-learning process
4. It fosters and promotes quick understanding of a concept situation


1. It requires the guidance of the teacher for better understanding and appreciation
2. An exhibition of other behaviors in the real life situation different from what has been illustrated or demonstrated in the classroom.


Oral Exposition is otherwise called lecture method. It is the method mostly adopted in the traditional period. In this type of teaching method dominate that of the learners in the classroom. Learner’s involvement and participation is not all that is very obvious in oral exposition instead, they are mostly passive and emphasis is, rather placed on teacher’s activities than the learner’s activities.

Oliver (2007) was quick to add that it is a well-known general principle that oral exposition is a poor method of communication in that the students plays a passive role. He emphasizes further that:

This gives rise to two separate problems in economic: first, the efficiency of alternative techniques is also severely circumscribed and second, there are special difficulties in teaching economics when oral methods are used.

These are some economics topics that require mostly the use of oral exposition or lecture method. Such topics include; economics growth and development, underdevelopment etc.


1. It saves time of teaching and notes preparation.
2. It is efficient and useful for teaching the class that is very large
3. It is useful where books are very scare or where students could not afford to buy books.


1. It is teacher- centered and not pupils – centered
2. It does not encourage class discussion or pupils involvement
3. It is most disadvantaged for student whose I.Q is below average – slow learners.


According to Ormrod, 2000 defined Discovery Teaching is “an approach to instruction through which students interact with their environment by explori0gn and manipulating objects.

Wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. The idea is that students are more likely to remember concepts they discover on their own.

Also, Discovery teaching has been described as process of allowing the student to take the leading role in his own learning experiences. The teacher becomes a facilitator and guide, making it possible for the learner to reach mutually-agreed upon goals. The teacher serves as a resource person to stimulate, motivate, clarify and explain.

Discovery teaching brings four basic components of the educational setting into interaction.

– The student
– The learner
– The environment and
– The content

The student is an active participant who solves problems which he understands through student the process of structuring his own learning experiences.The teacher plays the role of resource person, as described above the environment includes both freedom and structure with freedom having the upper hand. The content may very well be propositional truth in a general context, waiting in the proper place for the student to track it down, confront it, and capture it for his own.


This is a method that involves the use of actual (real) of closely stimulated economic events, situation, development or policy measures to assert facts. A case study in economics is the consideration of actual or closely stimulated economics events and situation.

Sandford and Bradbury (2008) in their view-points empathized that case studies “require the direct participation of the students, they are learning by doing, the case study method carries the danger that once ‘case’ may be regarded as typical and generalizations may be drawn based on a sample that is too small or too unrepresentative to warrant them.

The idea of case study was first used by Harvard School Business. Case studies have the following characteristics:-

Limited: In terms of the scope, it follows from the detail the limitation is essential for the purpose of making a point or clarification. Case study is usually limited or specific to place, event, time unit and phenomenon.

Unified: It is unified since it has clearly mark the beginning and end of an event, unit or phenomenon.

Detailed: The use of case studies is more detailed than the textbookanalysis or in the course of lecture.

For instance, in the textbook, the origin of bank generally will be reveal however, a case study of a bank will tell in more detail the origin of such bank.


There are two basic types of case study:

i. Case study that illustrates principles
ii. Case study that propounds principles

Case study that illustrates principles: This is the type employed by Adam Smith in his attempt to explain or illustrate the operation of the principle of Division of Labour. It is the famous case study of a pin-making industry. Adam Smith divided the states of production of pins with one person performing only a stage of the production process.

Case studies that propound principles: There are some case studies which help to propound some principles. In order to propound a theory, we need to study a real situation in the number of cases. The case-study in this category will enable the pupils to understand the fact of the case, the task of inducing principles from them.

Merits of case study method

i. It make point understandable and clearer
ii. It gives the reality of event
iii. It helps in teaching some topics such as division labour, production
iv. It can be used as substitute for verbal presentation

Demerits of case study method

i. It is time consuming
ii. It not appropriately use, it may confuse the students
iii. Its successful application depends on the teachers’ ability.
iv. It can only be used to supplement other method to make is successful.
v. It requires students’ reasonable level of maturity.


For successful and effective teaching, there are some vital thingsthat teacher need to know. This implies that, there are some vital principles that should be integrated in selecting a good method of teaching.

a. The purpose of any teaching method should be geared towards effective learning
b. All teaching methods are useful and effective if the teacher is a master of the subject matter thereby enhancing his effectiveness in the classroom.
c. All methods should encourage activities that demands effort from the students.
d. The method to be used must adapt to the age, experience and ability to the learners.
e. Good lesson notes are the foundation of good preparation
f. It should be able to make the students know the relevance of the subject matter of their life.
g. It must enhance the effective use of time at the teachers’ disposal.
h. The teacher must be able to cope with such method effectively, thereby achieving the purpose.
i. It should ensure the participation of the learners.
j. The resources at the disposal of a teacher equally dictate his choice of method.

A teacher’s preference for a particular method of teaching will, in most cases, influence his choice hence, teachers who have developed some great likening for a particular method often hold on fanatically to it.



Epidemic risk is complex, but policymakers have tools they can deploy in response. Some tools minimize the likelihood of outbreaks or limit their proliferation. Others attempt to minimize the health impact of outbreaks that cannot be prevented or immediately contained. Still others aim to minimize the economic impact.

Investing in improved sanitation, provisioning of clean water, and better urban infrastructure can reduce the frequency of human contact with pathogenic agents. Building strong health systems and supporting proper nutrition will help ensure good baseline levels of health, making people less susceptible to infection. Of course, strengthening basic systems, services, and infrastructure becomes easier with economic growth and development; however, policies to protect spending in these areas even when budgets are constrained can help safeguard developing economies from major health shocks that could significantly impinge upon human capital and impede economic growth.

Investment in reliable disease surveillance in both human and animal populations is also critical. Within formal global surveillance systems, it may be beneficial to develop incentives for reporting suspected outbreaks, as countries may reasonably fear the effects of such reporting on trade, tourism, and other economic outcomes. The Corovirus epidemic, for instance, might have been better contained if China had reported the initial outbreak to the WHO earlier.

Informal surveillance systems, such as ProMED and HealthMap, which aggregate information from official surveillance reports, media reports, online discussions and summaries, and eyewitness observations, can also help Nigeria centre for disease control (NCDC)and international responders get ahead of the epidemiological curve during the early stages of an outbreak. Social media offers additional opportunities for early detection of shifts in infectious disease incidence like Coronavirus.

Nigeria and other Countries should be ready to take initial measures to limit the spread of coronavirus . Historically, ships were quarantined in port during plague epidemics to prevent the spread of the disease to coastal cities. In the case of highly virulent and highly transmissible diseases, quarantines may still be necessary, although they can inspire concerns about human rights. Likewise, it may be necessary to ration biomedical countermeasures if supplies are limited. Countries should decide in advance if they will prioritize first responders and other key personnel or favor vulnerable groups, such as children and the elderly.

Technological solutions can help minimize the burden of sizable coronavirus outbreaks and epidemics. Better and less costly treatments including novel antibiotics and antivirals to counter coronavirus are sorely needed. New and improved vaccines are perhaps even more important.

We cannot predict which pathogen will spur the next major epidemic after coronavirus, where that epidemic will originate, or how dire the consequences will be. But as long as humans and infectious pathogens coexist, outbreaks and epidemics are certain to occur and to impose significant costs. The upside is that we can take proactive steps to manage the risk of epidemics and mitigate their impact. Concerted action now at the local, national, and multinational levels can go a long way toward protecting our collective well-being in the future.


1.1 Background of the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.4 Research Hypotheses

1.5 Significance of the Study

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

1.7 Research Method

1.8 Definition of Terms


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Conceptual Framework

2.3 Empirical Framework

2.4 Theoretical Framework


3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population of the Study

3.3 Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.4 Instrument/Method of Data Collection

3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument

3.6 Method of Data of Analysis


4.1 Data Presentation

4.2 Data Analysis

4.3 Test of Hypothesis

4.4 Findings


5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research